Text published in the exhibition catalogue
TERESA GANCEDO: I WILL CALL IT ANOTHER TIME, I WILL CALL IT ANOTHER SPACE
Madrid: Odalys Gallery, 2021.
PHOTOGRAPH: MARÍA ANTONIA PONS, 2021
TERESA GANCEDO, NEXT TO “ALEGORÍA DE UN RITUAL” (1980). VANDRÉS GALLERY, 27/IV/1981.
Photograph: Courtesy of Teresa Gancedo’s archive
TERESA GANCEDO: WHAT CANNOT BEE SEEN WILL DEFINE US
ALFONSO DE LA TORRE
Painting always comes back, always comes back, always comes back.
…but does the word reality have any sense now, and can reality push us away from the commitment we have made with the object of memory, which is perpetual search? I think nothing is truer and, therefore, more reasonable, than roaming, since — do I need to say it? — there is no method to return to the true place. It is found infinitely close, perhaps. It is, also, infinitely far away… For the one who searches, even if they know that no path guides them, the surrounding world will be an abode of signs.
Yves Bonnefoy, reproduced in the catalogue of Teresa Gancedo’s exhibition (1977)
One does not always proclaim loudly the most important things one has to say
What cannot be seen will define us, speaks the voice of the poet Mark Strand. What cannot be seen or explained will always be in another place, always imagined . After reading some memories of Teresa Gancedo’s childhood (Tejedo del Sil, 1937), I write down quickly: her obsession for drawing during her school years, among the nuns’ reprimands: one poet will say that she might well be the girl who wanted to paint and not to play; another one will say that unhappiness controlled her completely. And her understanding father takes her to the Museo del Prado, where she is transported to an immemorial encounter with Bosch, never abandoned. She was quite unhappy, little Teresa, during her life in Madrid. And even during these days, she would recall melancholic the immemorial scenery of the valley in Laciana und El Bierzo, the abiding memory of her ancestors’ gestures, a recollection of that scenery character in an arrière-pays, the inner country, the territory beyond, the intratierra, the tras-país. Maybe that is what she meant, recalling it, her “El salón de la naturaleza” (the room of nature), the installation she has now arranged at this gallery.
Afterwards, a bit later on, another poet, Gamoneda, anointed her with his poetic hand, the painter would say it was “like some kind of blessing”. The poet would already in 1972 envisage her career impregnated in lyricism, subtlety and meticulousness, while he would also refer to her “signific disposition (…) appearance and ‘writing’ function”. Gamoneda was going to be read again, now in 2018, considering that his writing, those poetic resonances, remained current . The lyrical questionnaire, in Gancedo’s words, is comprised of those aforesaid keys: the traces of childhood, Bosch as a symbol of a certain history and the passion for painting, also the encounter with poetry. And they enable us to start understanding the complex, almost indefinite (we already know: there is no method to go back to the true place) artistic world of Teresa that she explained in 1979: “my works do not aim to be critical or reflective; I just want to validate a reality that has been, is, or might exist in this world of ours, a reality that I accept serenely and that I would like to show as a lyrical questionnaire about the notion of life.”
While reviewing her early bibliography, another until now unnoticed fact draws one’s attention: that one of her first glossators was the oddly admired Egidio Álvaro , a Portuguese art critic based in Paris, specialized in performance and conceptuality, who would early write about Gancedo in regard to her major monographic exhibition in 1977 at the Ciento gallery in Barcelona. A few months later, he included her work in his essential “Paradis perdu. Recherche d’identité” at the Centre Cultural et Social Municipal de Limoges, followed by her inclusion in the very important “Quartos Encontros Internacionais de Arte em Portugal”, the last “Encontros” of a tetralogy developed since 1974, including, besides exhibitions, debates, films or performances, among other activities. Therefore, this integrated Gancedo, present in the “Encontros”, in an active international context that I now read as a worthy inheritance from our “Encuentros” in Pamplona, another summer, that of 1972.
That exhibition in Barcelona would also become a starting point for Margit Rowell’s selection for the Guggenheim Museum, exhibited in 1980, Gancedo would be one of the nine magnificent in the race for the Guggenheim  and for Daniel Giralt-Miracle, that exhibition at the Ciento gallery, from an “elevated critical sense,” entailed our encounter with truly “lucid provocation for the intellect and conscience.”. Egidio Álvaro would already at that time relocate Gancedo to her true place. This way, from a certain realism as pictorial instrument, the busy “chronicle of reality”, met an avant-garde world that belonged to Gancedo, a universe that was mysterious and hidden, cruel and indifferent, silent but staged “in a particularly moving way”. That mystery has been pertinaciously defended by Gancedo and can be symbolized in a frequent statement of hers that reminds me of that Michaux that claimed that we live in a world of enigmas: “we live in a mystery”, is what she would say. Here, she has also not avoided a deep poetic sense that seems to always express itself through a return to the lack of an explanation, a withdrawing sense to what is internal, a desire to create in order to understand herself.
Staging and emotivity, like returning from a lost paradise, the time of image had come back  in those immediate words from Egidio Álvaro, who also perceived that Teresa’s work belonged with “the refine painters, the intimist ones, the poetic ones, the hidden painters,” always paying attention to the “dark, intangible side of things, of symbols, of people, of facts (…). It was then confirmed that “her originality, her very particular objectivity, her synthesis spirit and desire to go beyond the barriers of history and what has been given beforehand becomes part of this vast contemporary current of ideas and creations that highlights clarity of analysis, language complexity, immersion in experiences and the importance of imagination.”. During that same time, the painter underlines her sentiment about the chaotic aspect of existence, which she would transfer to her painting. This coincided with a writing by Rafael Santos Torroella in 1973: “she achieves an effective visualization of the chaos and contradiction that exist in a many times alienated contemporary conscience and mindset. One year later, this Catalonian critic would also highlight the melancholic state of Gancedo’s work and her possible return to paradise .
The immediate presence of Gancedo’s work in the United States, in the context of the exhibition “New images from Spain” — that we will comment on later —, organized by the Guggenheim Museum in 1980 was a good opportunity to erase “that image of Spanish aggressiveness” while also, for our artist, the selected group of artists accompanying her resulted in an exhibition that was “very poetic, very fresh, very natural, without aiming to be avant-garde, very creative”; the artist underlined the company of — perhaps colder — works by Miquel Navarro y Sergi Aguilar. Margit Rowell shrewdly observed in her text in the catalogue eighties how in that hectic time figurative or realistic art was not considered avant-garde. This was an acute problem in the Spanish case due to the weight of the secular pictorial tradition of our art history, to which we can add the contrast between the silent work of Gancedo and the effervescence that Rowell probably felt in Spain during that decade that declared itself as multicolor. Gancedo also suffered from an odd personal synthesis that, in Rowell´s words, displaced Gancedo to the margin of almost all new trends. Nevertheless, this strangeness was explained by Gancedo through a rare resonance that recalled the memory of Palazuela´s blood. Let us remember: memory would be another kind of blood: “it is the memory of blood. Blood would be another see on the Earth, where all rivers flow into, all the memories of life.” And, in the resounding words of Gancedo, as if returning to her exile, memory was another form of blood because “reality is not objective, but subjective and it is almost always transformed by the honesty of the deception a memory infuses in everything that happens to us. I would like my works to be seen as brief equivocal representations of the world and life. They do not aim to be critical or literal, but to present a reality that is intertwined with memories of years, of names, of mystery, of pain, of joy. Memory is also truth and life, another form of blood (…).”
Did Gancedo have affinities with the realistic world represented in our country by names like Julio López Hernández, Antonio López García or Carmen Laffón, among others? Those affinities were fictional and perhaps they came from a way of representing reality with a dusty veil on, also because of the existence of a generation of female painters that found reality among a certain grisaille universe. Amalia Avia, María Moreno, Esperanza Nuere, Esperanza Parada or Isabel Quintanilla come to my mind, among other coetaneous realists.Rowell was right, however, by underlining the notorious differences between them and Gancedo, as well as the matter of finitude as a paradigm of the critical moment of the revelation of the sense and the cycles of life. Her reflection was faced with a mystical relation of reality, depicted for example in the attraction towards horror in the paintings of Manolo Millares or, as observed by Rowell, in the sorrowful paintings of Antoni Tàpies, with their signs and crosses, silent traces in the walls transcendentally roaming in the space. Therefore, yes, Gancedo’s way of painting carried a modern language with it, closer to a trembling conceptual transformation instead of adhering to what was commonly known as realism. It is, therefore, easier to associate her with artists like Gérard Titus Carmel, Vladimir Veličković or Joël Kermarrec or, in our country, I sometimes think of the early works of Guillermo Lledó. Like this, our painter’s technique contained all the precise embers that would blend into a contemporary vision: photo transfers together with hyper-realistic drawings and brutal fragments of reality, reality approximating fiction, assemblage and drawing. For this reason, Rowell observed that “the results are situated on a level that is different to actual reality: because the artist’s reality exists in a temporal framework that is very different from that of our daily life. Regardless of the objects being isolated in sequential compartments, organized within a grid structure or freely dispersed on the flat surface of their medium, they are separated from the time and space of their original context, and they are also external to our own lived experience. Occasionally blurred through a uniform and faded wash or inside crystallized boxes, they seem to seep through the artist’s personal memories and relocate themselves following their own sense of time: past, present, possible or indefinite. Therefore, they cannot be read according to the automatisms of ordinary perception (from foreground to background or from a whole to parts, for example). Since we find ourselves forced to follow a lineal or circular discursive sequence, we must go from one level of reality to another, where we find different physical, special, temporal, perceptive or tangible experiences.” Ultimately, the issue was not simple, since the very Gancedo observed how she — with ambiguity — was facing the complex issue of depicting the world, “making difficult to set the limits between the depicted object and the real object,” so she would incorporate the notion of time into the depicted elements through images that seem to be “always petrified,” she would say.”
Fueled by signs, her work conveys a tangible value, always noted by the artist, that recalls the thoughts of Merleau-Ponty: between the visible and the invisible, “every vision has a place in some part of the tangible space,” the visible, clear, carved in the intangible. Unsettling the vision, strangeness populates the corpus of her work like true background music, travelling across the folds of time, so that those who contemplate her works are transferred to what lacks limits in the staging of the visible and a certain onslaught with some images: “drawn by the tangible aspect (…) I am passionate about the quality and richness that every element has on the surface (…) I am very interested in depicting the richness they have from a tangible point of view.” This is what the artist will call a “reality portrayed as a ritual: I want the object to become desirable, tangible, palpable (…) at the same time.”
This leads us to being able to observe now that, in some way, Gancedo’s work has always taken place between two points, the experience of individuals in the world and, on the other hand, an inexhausted mysticism in that experience, as if a powerful sentiment of a trembling transcendence met the gravity of reality, lightness and weight, a poetic glance with a great symbolic strength among what is immobile and inhabited, reflecting on what that restless place where emptiness clamors might be. A creating world that seems to contemplate reality in a difficult balance between affection and lack of pleasure, inquiring into the (in)visible, darkness and scarcity, as if it had the courage to narrate, somewhat sorrowful, the mute vibration of the mysterious life that is the essence of every day. A tale of thousand tales, presences revealed out of a declining, fleeting light, like gleaming while fainting, between a certain phantasmagorical apparition elevated into space, the resurrection of a space of shadows within the praise of what happens unnoticed, a mysterious grisaille universe, it is known: who speaks truth speaks shadow. An active stillness reigns in her work, a time without links, what we have sometimes called — referring to other artists — an introverted imagination; her frequent attribution to poetry and her encounters visited by her fellow poets.
This way, Rowell’s statement was justified, while her vocabulary derived from that realistic tradition — a trail subject to questioning and, therefore, a delayed language —, this would confer her a singular syntaxis, where the presence of multiplied works, grids, repetitions, sequences or diverse rhythms that conveyed an extremely contemporary look were frequent, like a depiction of marginal situations, so that, in the author’s opinion, Gancedo signified Margit’s true personal bet, yes: brave Margit, since within the group of artists that were present in the Guggenheim Museum she did not find a role model to look up to in the art of her time. And, imitating another work by Rowell from that time, it was possible to include Gancedo’s work in an impregnated interregnum called “Que-est-ce que la peinture?”. This aroused curiosity and critical praise, so that during her encounter in the United States, it was simple to find reflections that linked her work with our art history but appreciated her distinct deep poetic content. Like this, in a chronological review, for Hilton Kramer, head critic of “The New York Times”, we were in presence of a poetic exercise, “a gentler, more meditative mode of representational painting (…) who combines vivid realist detail with some very haunting and very poetic evocations of death and old age.” For Lori Simmons Zelenko, death was Gancedo’s way to refer to life: “she does not see it as a frightening; rather, it reveals the very meaning of life to her. She paints the motifs of his part of the life process with a combination of realism and trompe l’oeil effects.” Theodore F. Wolff considered that this artist, from the modesty of her character and the fineness of an exquisite sensitivity, “coupled with a poignant, bitter-sweet attitude towards life, give her paintings a quality of heartbreaking delicacy”. Edward J. Sullivan, a critic specialized in Latin American and Spanish art, agreeing with Kramer, underlined that we were before a true example of lyricism. His judgement, extensive and illustrated with an allusive work, also contextualized Gancedo in Spanish art history: “the most lyrical works in these exhibitions are by Teresa Gancedo. Several of her mixed-media pieces are composed of canvas or wood panel onto which have been affixed photographs, crucifixes, tied bundles of tiny dried flowers, holy cards of Velázquez and Murillo paintings (invariably of Christ on the cross), bits of wood, plastic flowers and plaster angels, as in ‘The Loved Ones’. The component objects are seen through sprayed glass which enhances their nostalgic and melancholic feeling. Death is a pervasive theme in the work of Gancedo: her iconography is that of grave markers, head stones, cemeteries, and other mementos. Again, we find here a return to a theme which has obsessed more artists in Spain than in any another place. In their tight, compact format, Gancedo’s Works present us with a modern reconsideration of the topics of death, sadness, parting, remembrance, eternity, and salvation that where the principal points of departure for some of the great works of Spanish painting by Zurbarán, Velázquez, Murillo, Goya and others”. Additionally, for Key Larson, “Teresa Gancedo builds allegorical images out of sticks, photographs, and memorabilia,”, while Norman Nadel considered that “expresses herself through reality, but seen more through the misty mirror of the spirit than the crystal clarity of the eyes. Small funeral arrangements, wrapped twigs and other symbols evoke feelings of something gone, faded, removed in time but still a part of us.” She was “delicate and sensitive” for John Palme Leeper, while our Senén Ubiña, agreeing with Sullivan, observed how her works carried with them “a poetic realism, which in America may be considered ‘avant-garde’ but which is of long tradition in Spain (…) her drawings have incredible precision.”.
Painting, watching, sequencing, depicting?
The discussion about Spanish pictorial tradition, its approximation to the depiction of reality and pictorial procedures sometimes avoids the main point, how Gancedo’s contribution has to do with an intense, secular reflection about the constitution of images in the visible space.
“Let her go from her pain to the painting” is what Antonio Colinas will say, thinking about our artist. “Evidencia-apariencia” (evidence-appearance) will read the title of an exhibition where the artist will take part during this time. In this regard, Gancedo explained that her work “could be defined as a tremendous effort to grasp reality: I am saying to grasp, that means accepting it, internalizing it, sifting it through the sieve of my experiences, memories, an unconscious part of myself, and then showing it with all those strange findings that arise from merging both realities: the external, given; and the internal, felt (…) a large dose of visual allegory, utilizing continuous inter-relations between past elements, already experienced, present ones, and imaginary and future ones.” Like this, between painting and depiction, between the assemblage of the natural object and its drawing as an ambiguous dialectic image — i.e. unfolded —, reality meets, paradoxically, the artifice of painting, glory or misfortune, beyond itself, time or space; an image in crisis, meaning that many of Gancedo’s images are images-thinking-of-images-thinking, those Denkbilder by Walter Benjamin. Thoughts like dreams of an imagining drift, since images remain questioned out of that amazing precision Ubiña mentioned upon finding her work in New York, as he finds, almost, like a speculum evidencing a vanished reality, becoming depiction an accident of what was painted, like hidden erasures in the ill-fated extension, images that are mysterious like an omen. “The works show — again, a poet comes to our rescue — a wistfulness that poetically activates them (…) poetry (…) is an experience that implies revelation, in other words, awareness of a hidden reality; what cannot be known through the sole perception of the external data and the object,” will now conclude Gamoneda. It is not strange, things appear and disappear before one’s eyes, so that the resulting artistic object — we could subscribe to Duchamp — is an apparition, since in her painting like an album fixed between what has been found and a relic (the term “relic” will title some of her works in that time), like a present, its reminiscence later painted, a drawn votive offering or oblation, this longing painting has been carrying with it that murmur of the true things that Benjamin would state about Kafka. I now think that along with them, as with Klee, Teresa Gancedo shares living in her own isolated world, somewhere deep and within among the mysterious things that are difficult to explain, where she continues painting now in 2021, what the thinker described as a complementary world. We find ourselves, however, before a fragment of the real world, since, as Bonnefoy said, there is nothing truer than roaming, there is no method anymore to return to the true place. An abode of signs, a representation of reality that is sometimes shown as by someone who does not completely understand, a speech on reality delivering in a foggy space where the parable cements itself, like embers of vision or intense images marked by a strong depriving character. Such a condensed image, a doble distance in that critical job of the memory that Gancedo addresses. I wrote “memory,” but it is also awareness, since imago and idea are kept in intermittent images that seem to be shaken by underground blows, causing the awaited image to founder, like an image that moves on itself, like images permanently set in a state of shock.
Desire and caution, ultimately, like a return that showed the clues and the rupture of what is lost. Remembering Dostoievski: “we face a mystery we cannot understand and, for being an enigma, we had all the right to preach and teach men that what they must subject themselves is neither freedom, nor love, but secrecy and mystery; and that without reticence, even against one’s own conscience.” Beginning and end, this title by Gancedo from a group of works from 1977 assists us, displacing us to other works with similar reflections between the two big shadows where life takes places. “Mother and Daughter” (1975) or “Mother and Son” (1978) are another example of Nabokov’s inheritance, in that read book: our brief existence is nothing more than a crack of light between two eternities of shadows. Gancedo tempts to depict shapes in space through a radical introspection process, like owning something beyond the known world, beyond herself. In numerous occasions, proceeding to attribute a certain timing to that space, through the frequent use of those fragmentations in the composition; reticles where stories take place, like a world of memories, that is how she will title one of her works.
An infuriated painter, her work in the last years has acquire the consistency of an exercise that seems invigorated and completely free. Large polyptychs and a vehement painting, populated with sign reminiscences, with some of the search for a certain lost paradise, like that exhibition of Egidio Álvaro. Refined in some polyptychs that function through the exercise of reiteration and variation, a kind of art brut look in other cases, other paintings feel like they were painted on the first day of time, where the praise to the object prevails in contrast to the previous search for the inebriety of a gaze. Other paintings — now I look at her “Biblical Stories” or “The Sacred Forrest” — seem to be tinged by the shadow of time.
The ineffable, what we contemplate, everything we see, is linked to time, perhaps that is why Gancedo creates in a sort of obsessive and unappealable temporality. Out of fragility and complicity, she builds a world that has started in fascination, like a higher power, a place of redemption and wistfulness that must end in knowledge, since by looking at some of the works of this painter — they look like reborn from history, rescued from the praise to what seems to be minimal —, I think of what Benjamin reminded us of: the most insignificant thing is charged in a way that, daring, is able to enlighten everything. When the book is closed, the last word comes.
TERESA GANCEDO IN THE CONTEXT OF NEW IMAGES FROM SPAIN, GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM, NEW YORK, 1980 (AND HASTINGS GALLERY, SPANISH INSTITUTE)
Solomon Guggenheim Museum, New York, March 20, 1980
From left to right. Up: Antoni Muntadas, Guillermo Pérez Villalta, Carmen Calvo, Zush, Teresa Gancedo, Sergi Aguilar y Darío Villalba. Down: Ginés Serrán Pagán, Jordi Teixidor, Margit Rowell y Miquel Navarro.
Photograph: Courtesy of Teresa Gancedo’s archive
Works of Teresa Gancedo on the upper floor of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New Images from Spain, March 21-May 11,1980. On the middle floor, Carmen Calvo and Guillermo Pérez Villalta. Meanwhile, on the lowest floor, works from Eduardo Chillida’s exhibition, which took place simultaneously.
Photograph: Courtesy of Carmen Calvo’s archive
Teresa Gancedo at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New Images from Spain, March 21-May 11, 1980. In the background, her painting: “The Wounded Flower (La flor herida)”, 1979, Guggenheim Museum Collection, New York. Below, the performed intervention.
Photograph: Courtesy of Teresa Gancedo’s archive
Between 1979 and 1980, the critic and exhibition commissioner Margit Rowell (New Haven, 1937) visited several studios of Spanish artists. From all of them, she picked nine artists to take part in the exhibition “New Images from Spain” (1980) at the Guggenheim Museum in New York. Two of the selected artists were women: Teresa Gancedo (León, 1937) and Carmen Calvo (Valencia, 1950). Rowell acknowledged that the one who was most distant from the, openly abstract, proposed canon was Gancedo, an artist that in that time was included in Fernando Vijande’s gallery “Galería Vandrés,” where she had an individual exhibition in 1977 and then in 1981. For the New York exhibition, the commissioner selected an octet of Gancedo’s works that, we now deduce, must have captivated her; she wrote “a subtle emulsion of subjectivity and objectivity.” The eight works exhibited by Gancedo, great paintings — one of them was related to an attached intervention or site specific — had the numbers 20 to 27 in the catalogue, they were titled in English and Spanish: 20. “The Dried Branch (El tronco seco”, 1977; 21. “The Loved Ones (Los seres queridos)”, 1977; 22. “Discourse on Reality (Discurso sobre la realidad)”, 1978; 23. “The Wounded Flower (La flor herida)”, 1979; 24 (a y b). “The Wreath (La corona)”, 1979; 25. “Relics I (Reliquias I)”, 1979; 26. “Relics II (Reliquias II)”, 1979; 27. “Another Time, Another Space (Otro tiempo, otro espacio)”, 1979. Next to the base of the work numbered 23 in the Guggenheim Museum’s collection catalogue, Teresa received an ad hoc installation — that was therefore removed after the exhibition — that was 200 x 300 cm. The base consisted of a large box filled with sand (albero sand from Seville) that was at a slope, following the inclined perimetral base of the Museum, where elements made by Teresa would protrude, small fabric cylinders and diverse forms where she had placed, like “flowers”, small branches and other elements of nature that were condemned to wither; in the artist’s recent concise words: “ideas about life and death, the passing of time.”
Vandrés gallery, Teresa Gancedo, Madrid, April 27-May 20, 1981
Photograph: Courtesy of Teresa Gancedo’s archive
This intervention in New York led her to making another one for her next exhibition in Madrid in 1981 at the Vandrés gallery, from Fernando Vijando, where the focal object where Madrid suburbs, wandered and photographed by the flaneuse Gancedo. Neighborhoods condemned to disappearing where she also collected the remains (debris, vegetable remains, footprints from constructions, sand and bricks) she took to the gallery and were installed in an area of the room floor were, in her words “the memory of a destruction.”Some photographs show us how the artist contemplated the ruins of the city, those scraped walls with traces of former doorsteps, windows, dilapidated stairs, chimneys pointing to nowhere, painted paper sheets like wounds from the demolition; accentuating the life that once existed, hectic, like traces of Gordon Matta-Clark’s wallpapers. What cannot be seen will define us, we said with Strand. Gancedo saw drawings in the wall with memories of the transition to the rooms of a home, where a sequence of rooms that used to be illuminated have now turned into poetic ashes of the bodies that used to inhabit those rooms. For Gancedo, those interventions in exhibitions in the eighties were a way to interiorize herself, to understand herself — she would tell me —, rather than intervening or exteriorizing. The interventions were not so much a search, but the expression of inner forces that correspond to states of consciousness, like showing a reality she sensed it existed, perforated, on the other side of reality.
Madrid, 1981. Photographs by Teresa Gancedo. Reproduced in the exhibition’s catalogue.
Vandrés gallery, Teresa Gancedo, Madrid, April 27-May 20, 1981
In any case, let us now recall her integration work of — mainly — art, ceramics and stained glass, which her mural at the La Fe Hospital in Valencia upholds.
Teresa Gancedo. Mural at the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, c. 1985-1986. C. 26 linear mt. Photograph: Fineras, Valencia
An art touched by tension and a constant requirement about what the elusive truth is and what is appearance, reality and its formal expression, history, time and its images. A representation in a discovery trance, such a momentary faint, the objects or depicted elements seem merged, inhabited by an ashy light. An artist with a transfigured look, caressing the suspended representation, able to transmute the world into an introspective space, such a phasmas. Eccentrical abstraction, imitating Lyppard we could write about Gancedo, vanishing of limits, linking stories of art and life, and interrupting them abruptly, travelling through rifts and incorporations, displaying cruel images through appropriations and re-appropriations, slid between the present or the prodigy, her creative world would become full of complexity and strangeness. Narrations like meaning systems, sighs among the silence of a language incinerated by the mourning, the past or the noise. Oblivion and the verb of pain, a creator like a creator of senses, a reality that seemed to address issues like materiality and corporality, an imaginary real world where, moreover, a certain uncertainty, with an air of suspension and transit as mediation with the spectator were present, since her work did not so much reveal a still or restrained element, but rather a state of conscience, forces or precise energy types to know. A searcher of images in the wasteland, there was something imperious in Gancedo’s creations, as if the need for a short story were still burning.
Memory, alienation, time, a journey between the visible and the invisible, what is there or what escaped, the passing of time, with an air of poetry, her images would raise in a declared non-grammatical spirit, dissolving narrations like frozen portions of a time. Roaming vision, we find some fire and depth in her work. Wistfulness as a painting, this was observed by Rowell considering that “every formulation is a different transcription of reality. Despite these differentiated and true translations of real objects, results are found on a level that is different to reality itself: because the artist’s reality exists in a time framework that is very different to that of our everyday life. Regardless of whether the objects are isolated in sequential compartments, organized according to a grid structure or freely dispersed on the flat surface of their medium, they are separated from the time and space of their original context and they are also external to our own life experience.” A journey between unrest and alterity, out of that depiction of elements coming from reality, the limit was tempting by diverting us towards a permanent exercise of one’s own finitude.
In 1980, the Guggenheim Museum in New York opened “New images from Spain”, that small selection of artists made by Margit Rowell in Spain of what seemed the most promising of the art to come; I have always reflected on the connection of this exhibition with the previous “American Painting: the eighties” (1979) by Barbara Rose. Reviewing Spanish art coincided once more in a “critical interpretation”. The halls of the Guggenheim Museum displayed, parallel to the exhibition of the young artists, another important exhibition of Eduardo Chillida in the same museum, generating “a confrontation of generations.” As a result, the curved Museum of Lloyd Wright was occupied in that time by institutions, personalities, agents and artists of Spain. Teresa Gancedo was among them. She, besides taking part in the exhibition, participated in one of the exhibition’s debates in New York, whose title recalled the environment created by Juan Antonio Aguirre: “The New Generation of Visual Art in Spain.” The redundant terminology “visual arts,” is there art that is not essentially visual? He was talking, of course, about art that expanded its borders beyond traditional canvas or paper mediums to new mediums like video or music, as in fact would happen — now I think about it — with the works of Alexanco or Muntadas. A selection of artists that — each within their concept — worked as limit-cases. This is how we can understand — now I see it — the works of Darío Villalba, Sergi Aguilar, or even Carmen Calvo.
Young or renowned creators, most of them present in the journey to the events related to the exhibition, this created an authentic Spanish spring around the inaugurations, at the same time that a secular debate about the concept of “the Spanish” was being generated, or re-edited. Pages ago, Teresa Gancedo had mentioned this after observing how the selection avoided trends, lacking “pretensions of being avant-garde.. Another extraordinary appendix of this project was the aforementioned presence of José Luis Alexanco along with Luis de Pablo, or Antoni Muntadas’ exhibition, at another fundamental and mythical performative space in New York: “The Kitchen,” where the first ones exhibited the extraordinary and intriguing “Soledad interrumpida” (Interrupted Loneliness) (1971), a title that seemed the poetic omen of a new time. The work of Muntadas was as well in “The Kitchen.” “Personal/Public.” Finally, diverse gatherings to discuss about our art in the context of the exhibition were programmed, as well as visits to these that were reserved for collectors. Those were very intense days. These were the participants of the cited exhibition: Sergi Aguilar, Carmen Calvo, Teresa Gancedo, Antoni Muntadas/Germán Serrán Pagán, Miquel Navarro, Guillermo Pérez Villalta, Jordi Teixidor, Darío Villalba y Alberto Porta-Zush. At the Hastings Gallery, a partner of the Spanish Institute, works on paper would be displayed, for which José Luis Alexanco was included, so that Rowell’s selection was recomposed as a group of ten artists. What was going to complete that true occupationof New York by our artists was the presence of Teixidor’s work at the MoMA program called PS1. Also, as if this were not enough, as our presence at Guggenheim concluded, “El Padre” would arrive at the MoMA, a major Picasso exhibition. There was no doubt, that was “the year of Spanish art in America”.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE TEXT
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ÁLVARO, Egidio. Paradis perdu. Recherche d’identité. Limoges: Centre Cultural et Social Municipal. IV-V/1977.
ARAZO, María Ángeles. Teresa Gancedo. La simbología mística en la pintura. Valencia: “Las Provincias”, 10/II/1988.
-Para una imagen de Proust.
-Sobre algunos temas en Baudelaire.
-Una carta sobre Kafka.
In “Iluminaciones”. Barcelona: Penguin Random House, 2018.
BONNEFOY, Yves. Antología. Barcelona: Lumen, 1977.
BONNEFOY, Yves. L’Arrière-pays. Paris: Mercure de France, 2001.
BOSCO, Roberta. Fernando Vijande, el amigo español de Andy Warhol. Madrid: “El País”, 7/XI/2017.
CASANELLES, María Teresa. Teresa Gancedo y sus ciclos vitales. Madrid: “Hoja del Lunes”, 17/X/1977.
CLAIR, Jean. L’oeuvre de Marcel Duchamp. París: Musée National d’Art Moderne-Centre National d’Art et de Culture Georges Pompidou, 1977.
–Para leer en lo eterno. 1990
–Plenitud de Teresa Gancedo. Pinto: Gráficas Aries, 2003
–En los prados sembrados de ojos. Madrid: Siruela, 2020.
COMBALÍA, Victoria. Entrevistas con Barbara Rose. Barcelona: “Batik”, nº 52, XI/1979.
DE LA TORRE, Alfonso. Soledad interrumpida (y sonora). In “José Luis Alexanco. Ejercicio temporal, 1964-2020”. Madrid: Comunidad de Madrid-Alcalá 31, 2020.
DÍAZ, Henar. Teresa Gancedo: “Casi toda la pintura de mujeres tiene algo de surrealismo”. León: ABC-Castilla y León, 24/XI/2018.
DUCHAMP, Marcel. Duchamp du signe. Paris: Flammarion, 2013.
ECHANDI, G. María Teresa G. Gancedo, pintora. Pamplona: “Diario de Navarra”, 8/VII/1973.
ESTEBAN, Claude-PALAZUELO, Pablo. Palazuelo. Paris: Editions Maeght, 1980. Version in Spanish: Barcelona: “Ediciones 62”.
GAITERO, Ana. Teresa Gancedo pintora. León: “Diario de León”, 11/I/2019.
GAMONEDA, Antonio. Mª Teresa G. Gancedo. León: Sala Provincia, 1972.
GAMONEDA, Antonio. Teresa Gancedo y la realidad poética. León: MUSAC, 2018.
GANCEDO, Teresa. Mi trabajo plástico. In “Teresa Gancedo. Discurso sobre la realidad. Obra realizada entre 1976-1979”. Sevilla: Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, 1979.
GANCEDO, Teresa. Notas. In “Teresa Gancedo. Discurso sobre la realidad”. Zaragoza: Galería Pepe Rebollo, II/1979, s/p.
GASTAMINZA, Genoveva. Exposiciones-Teresa Gancedo. San Sebastián: “La voz de España”, 21/VII/1973
GIRALT MIRACLE, Daniel. Cronografías. Barcelona: “Batik”, nº 54, p. 4, III-IV/1980.
GIRALT-MIRACLE, Daniel. Teresa Gancedo. Madrid: “Guadalimar”, Año II, nº 21, III/1977.
GUÉNIOT, David-Alexandre; PINTO, Paula. CALDAS 77–IVº Encontros Internacionais de Arte em Portugal/4èmes Rencontres Internationales d’Art au Portugal. Lisboa: Ghost Editions, 2018.
LAPIQUE, Luis María. María Teresa González Gancedo expone en la sala de cultura. Bilbao: “La Gaceta del Norte”, 7/VII/1973.
MICHAUX, Henri. Paul Klee. Paris : Éditions Gallimard, 1950.
NABOKOV, Vladimir. Habla, memoria. Barcelona: Anagrama, 1994.
ROCHA DE SOUSA, João. In “Teresa Gancedo. Discurso sobre la realidad”. Zaragoza: Pepe Rebollo gallery, II/1979.
SANTOS TORROELLA, Rafael.
–María Teresa Gancedo. Barcelona: “El Noticiero Universal”, 15/V/1973.
–María Teresa Gancedo. Barcelona: “El Noticiero Universal”, 3/XII/1974.
–Los de ‘los 60’: Retrato de una generación. Madrid: “ABC”, 16/XI/1989.
STRAND, Mark. Tormenta de uno. Madrid: Visor Libros, 2009.
BIBLIOGRAPHIC SELECTION ABOUT THE PRESENCE OF TERESA GANCEDO AT THE “NEW IMAGES FROM SPAIN” EXHIBITION AT THE GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM (1980)
AAVV. Art: Museum. Nueva York: Vol.1, p. 2, 1980, s/f.
AAVV. “Nuevas imágenes de España” en el museo Guggenheim. Barcelona: “La Vanguardía”, 1/IV/1980. s/p.
AMESTOY, Santos. Chillida y dos generaciones más de artistas españoles. Madrid: “Pueblo (Sábado Literario)”, 22/III/1980
CALVO SERRALLER, Francisco. Arte español en Nueva York. Madrid: “El País-Artes”, Año II, nº 22, 29/III/1980.
CALVO SERRALLER, Francisco. Jóvenes españoles en Nueva York: Panorama sobre el puente. Madrid: “Arteguía”, nº 54, IV/1980, pp. 8-11.
CASAS, Carmen. Una galería americana selecciona a 10 pintores. Barcelona: “El Correo catalán”, 8/XI/1979.
COMBALIA, Victoria. La controvertida exposició del Museu Guggenheim de Nova York. Barcelona: “Avui”, Año V, nº 1224, 13/IV/1980.
COMBALIA, Victoria. Así ha visto América las «New Images from Spain». Barcelona: “Batik”, nº 56, pp. 27-29, VI-VII/1980.
DAXLAND, John. Spanish art. Nueva York: “Daily News”, 9/V/1980, p. 11.
DE LA TORRE, Alfonso. Aquellas nuevas imágenes [ una reflexión en torno a la exposición New images from Spain, Guggenheim Museum, 1980]. Madrid: Galería José de la Mano, 2018.
GANCEDO, Teresa. Reality is the foundation of my plastic language. In the “New Images from Spain” catalogue. New York: Guggenheim Museum, 1980, p. 58.
GARCÍA, Manuel. Pintores valencianos en New York. Valencia: “Las Provincias (Artes y Letras)”, 21/III/1980.
HUICI, Fernando. Pintura española en Nueva York. Entrevista con Margit Rowell conservadora del museo Guggenheim. Madrid: “El País”, 26/VII/1979, p. 18.
KRAMER, Hilton. Art: New Images From Spain’Shown. New York: “The New York Times”, 28/III/1980.
KRAMER, Hilton. Critics’ Choices of the Best Holidays Shows in Town. New York: “The New York Times”, 4/IV/1980.
LARSON, Kay. Worldly Goods. New York: “Voice”, 8/V/1980, p. 84.
LÓPEZ, Ianko. El día en que 11 artistas españoles ‘asaltaron’ el Guggenheim de Nueva York, gracias a ‘la Mr. Marshall del arte’. Madrid: “El País-Icon-Design”, 2/I/2019.
MATEU DE ROS, Rafael. Obras en democracia. Madrid: “Expansión”, 2/II/2019, p. 41.
NADEL, Norman. Spanish art. Alive and burning. New York: “Index Journal”, 5/V/1980.
PALMER LEEPER, John. Spanish Images to open. San Antonio: “The North San Antonio Times”, 17/VII/1980, p. 5.
PÉREZ VILLALTA, Guillermo. Espejo de la memoria. Madrid: Mecánica Lunar, 2021.
PERMANYER, Lluís. Diez artistas españoles, diez. Barcelona: “La Vanguardia”, 16/IX/1979, s/p.
PERMANYER, Lluís. Catalana en el Guggenheim. La recordación trágico-poética de Teresa Gancedo.Barcelona: “Destino”, nº 2201, 12-18/XII/1979, pp. 42-43.
QUERALT, Rosa. «Noves imatges d’Espanya» al Museu Guggenheim. Barcelona: “Avui”, 6/IV/1980. p. 24.
ROSE, Barbara. Talking about… Art-Today’s uncensored Spanish art-subjective, surreal, with new energy, wit-on view in the U.S.A. New York: “Vogue”, III/1980, p. 140.
–Próxima exposición de pintores jóvenes españoles en Nueva York: declaraciones de Margit Rowell, seleccionadora de la muestra. Madrid: “El País-Artes”, 1979, nº 8, 22/XII/1979.
–Noves imatges “from Spain” (I). Barcelona: Revista Catalana de Cultura “Saber”, 3/V/1980, pp. 56-60.
–Poetic realism: Teresa Gancedo. In the catalogue “New Images from Spain”. Nueva York: Guggenheim Museum, 1980, pp. 20-22
SIMMONS ZELENKO, Lori. Vernissage-New images from Spain. USA: “L’Officiel”, III/1980, pp. 17-18.
SULLIVAN, Edward J. Structure and tradition in some new images from Spain. Nueva York: “Art Magazine”, IV/1980, pp. 142-145.
UBIÑA, Senén. Chillida, Basque Man of Iron-Also “New Image” Shows Young Spain. Nueva York: “Art/World”, 19/III-18/IV/1980, Vol. 4, nº 7, pp. 1 y 13.
VOZMEDIANO, Elena. De la “Bienal Roja” al arte neutral. Madrid: “El Cultural”, 4/I/2019.
WOLFF, Theodore F. Perplexing new images from Spain. Boston: “The Christian Science Monitor-Arts/Entertainement”, 7/IV/1980.
NOTES TO THE TEXT
 GAITERO, Ana. Teresa Gancedo pintora. León: “Diario de León”, 11/I/2019
 This quote from “L’Improbable” by Yves Bonnefoy was the opening phrase of Teresa Gancedo’s exhibition catalogue at Vandrés, Madrid, 1977. The origin of the quote was explained in the exhibition catalogue: BONNEFOY, Yves. Antología. Barcelona: Lumen, 1977.
 BENJAMIN, Walter. Para una imagen de Proust. En “Iluminaciones”. Barcelona: Penguin Random House, 2018, p. 45.
 STRAND, Mark. Tormenta de uno. Madrid: Visor Libros, 2009, p. 67.
 COLINAS, Antonio. En los prados sembrados de ojos. Madrid: Siruela, 2020, pp. 113-114. In the poem: “Laberintos-firmamentos de Teresa Gancedo”: “Kind painting of the girl / who wanted to paint and not to play”.
 PERMANYER, Lluís. Catalana en el Guggenheim. La recordación trágico-poética de Teresa Gancedo. Barcelona: “Destino”, nº 2201, 12-18/XII/1979, p. 42.
 “I was quite unhappy in Madrid, I had girlfriends, but it was never like in my small village (…) I was not happy”. GAITERO, Ana. Teresa Gancedo pintora. Op. cit.
 Conversation between this author and the artist, 6/VIII/2021.
 BONNEFOY, Yves. L’Arrière-pays. Paris : Mercure de France, 2001.
 These memories in: DÍAZ, Henar. Teresa Gancedo: “Casi toda la pintura de mujeres tiene algo de surrealismo”. León: ABC-Castilla y León, 24/XI/2018, p. 68. In the interview about the visits to the Museo del Prado, they also quote Velázquez and Murillo. Other mentions of Teresa Gancedo have underlined Memling, Piero della Francesca, Fra Angelico, Vermeer or Titus Carmel. LAPIQUE, Luis María. María Teresa González Gancedo expone en la sala de cultura. Bilbao: “La Gaceta del Norte”, 7/VII/1973.
 For Gamoneda, her work was defined by “the presence of a constant lyricism; a lyricism that belongs to the thematic purpose as well as to the way, the delicate and careful organization of its plastic signs,” concluding that early text that “remains true to its lyrical will.” GAMONEDA, Antonio. Mª Teresa G. Gancedo. León: Sala Provincia, 1972.
 GAMONEDA, Antonio. Teresa Gancedo y la realidad poética. León: MUSAC, 2018, p. 38.
 Having mentioned Gamoneda, his early text from 1972, and then his recent one from 2018, both reproduced in this publication, we should also remember to quote the poem by Antonio Colinas that was previously allude to in these notes. Also: COLINAS, Antonio. Para leer en lo eterno. 1990; COLINAS, Antonio. Plenitud de Teresa Gancedo. Pinto: Gráficas Aries, 2003 y COLINAS, Antonio. En los prados sembrados de ojos. Op. cit. She explained, about her relationship with poetry, that she wanted to “highlight the passing of time, but by creating a timeless space, saturated with nostalgia, poetry: that is why poets like my paintings so much, because it has a lot of content and poetic reading.” CASANELLES, María Teresa. Teresa Gancedo y sus ciclos vitales. Madrid: “Hoja del Lunes”, 17/X/1977.
 GANCEDO, Teresa. Mi trabajo plástico. In “Teresa Gancedo. Discurso sobre la realidad. Obra realizada entre 1976-1979”. Sevilla: Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, 1979.
 ÁLVARO, Egidio. Discurso sobre la realidad. Atisbos sobre las catástrofes y la ternura en lo cotidiano. Barcelona: Galería Ciento, 1977. This exhibition took place between February 12 and March 12, 1977. Egidio Álvaro (Coimbra, 1937-Montrouge, 2020) was one of the most renowned Portuguese art critics, specialist in the historical analysis of performances and conceptual art, especially in Portugal, what he showed in Paris at the Pompidou Center in 1984 under the title “Performance portugaise”. In 1989, he was a commissioner for performances at the Centre d’Art Santa Mónica in Barcelona. We will later mention his role in the “Encontros” that took place between 1974 and 1977.
 Centre Cultural et Social Municipal, Paradis perdu. Recherche d’identité (Jacques Damville, João Dixo, Teresa Gancedo, Akos Szabo), Limoges, Abril-Mayo 1977
 Quartos Encontros Internacionais de Arte em Portugal (Exposições, Debates, Filmes, Performances, Rituais, Intervenções, Video, Teatro, Ballet, Fantoches), Caldas da Rainha, August 1-12, 1977. This encounter, what we have read about the excitement caused by the presence of more than a hundred artists, Teresa Gancedo among them, during those twelve days, has reminded me of our “Encuentros” in Pamplona that, as we known, developed in 1972. The Encontros Internacionais de Arte Contemporânea, promoted by Egídio Álvaro, took place between 1974 and 1977 in Valadares, Viana do Castelo, Póvoa do Varzim and Caldas da Rainha. Vid., about this particular one: GUÉNIOT, David-Alexandre; PINTO, Paula. CALDAS 77–IVº Encontros Internacionais de Arte em Portugal/4èmes Rencontres Internationales d’Art au Portugal. Lisboa: Ghost Editions, 2018.
 “We built a joint outside installation about the biblical episode and I participated as guest in the encounters and discussions, that was maybe the most interesting part of my stay those days. I remember a debate where I defended the concept and the idea, but always linked to the practice.” Correspondence between the artist and this author, 20/VIII/2021.
 She recognized it in this article: ROWELL, Margit. Próxima exposición de pintores jóvenes españoles en Nueva York: declaraciones de Margit Rowell, seleccionadora de la muestra. Madrid: “El País-Artes”, 1979, nº 8, 22/XII/1979.
 Rather “magnificent male artists,” as the critic expressed, considering that there were seven male artists and two women, the other one was Carmen Calvo. The expression came from Daniel Giralt-Miracle: “the race for the Guggenheim Museum in New York comes to an end. The nine magnificent have won the race.” GIRALT MIRACLE, Daniel. Cronografías. Barcelona: “Batik”, nº 54, p. 4, III-IV/1980.
 GIRALT-MIRACLE, Daniel. Teresa Gancedo. Madrid: “Guadalimar”, Año II, nº 21, III/1977.
 This is how she was described by: GASTAMINZA, Genoveva. Exposiciones-Teresa Gancedo. San Sebastián: “La Voz de España”, 21/VII/1973. Reproduced in: “Teresa Gancedo”. Barcelona: Sala de Arte Ausias March, 1974: A chronicle of reality including all intervening factors is what Teresa Gancedo makes with a peculiar sensibility and an extraordinary honesty.”
 ÁLVARO, Egidio. Discurso sobre la realidad. Op. cit. “She just shows it in her cruelty, her indifference (…) there is no grief, though; but there is a clearly declared non-conformism, a constant rebelliousness (…) the vision is serene, mature, calm. The image, although symbolic, is not moral.”
 Said the artist to: ARAZO, María Ángeles. Teresa Gancedo. La simbología mística en la pintura. Valencia: “Las Provincias”, 10/II/1988, p. 30. And Michaux came back crestfallen after contemplating an exhibition of Paul Klee: MICHAUX, Henri. Paul Klee. Paris : Éditions Gallimard, 1950.
 ÁLVARO, Egidio. Paradis perdu. Recherche d’identité (Jacques Damville, João Dixo, Teresa Gancedo, Akos Szabo). Limoges: Centre Cultural et Social Municipal. IV-V/1977. Text from catalog of homonymous exhibition. The emotivity issue, reiterated by Egidio, was also repeated by the artist in: PERMANYER, Lluís. Catalana en el Guggenheim. La recordación trágico-poética de Teresa Gancedo. Op. cit. p. 42: “Siempre prima la emotividad”.
 ÁLVARO, Egidio. Discurso sobre la realidad. Op. cit.
 “I try to express my art. It may seem like my paintings are chaotic, absurd. I think that is how life is, chaotic.” ECHANDI, G. María Teresa G. Gancedo, pintora. Pamplona: “Diario de Navarra”, 8/VII/1973.
 SANTOS TORROELLA, Rafael. María Teresa Gancedo. Barcelona: “El Noticiero Universal”, 15/V/1973.
And, one year later: SANTOS TORROELLA, Rafael. María Teresa Gancedo. Barcelona: “El Noticiero Universal”, 3/XII/1974: “not the vicious and aggressive one from the Dadaists, but another one at times cold and melancholic, not so much of denunciation and protest as of a hidden defeat, of a passive, hurting, non-conformism (…) a sad atmosphere in which the promiscuity of tasteless things and human creatures seem to only talk about the wreck of life turned into habit overshadows, turbid river of time that carries all those fragmentations together — objective and subjective ones — to the shoreless sea of nothingness and oblivion. Despite everything, despite so much melancholy and the insidious frustration that seems to be inside it, there is also beauty in these works (…) an exquisite sensitivity and, despite everything, free of grief.” We would find Santos Torroella writing again about Gancedo: “nostalgic about paradises that were never completely lost or stopped in the unfinished imminence of what oblivion would like to become but cannot.” SANTOS TORROELLA, Rafael. Los de ‘los 60’: Retrato de una generación. Madrid: “ABC”, 16/XI/1989, p. 151. The paradise as theme will return to the poem by Colinas we have mentioned here: “a reached paradise / in the full-emptiness, in the silence / of your mandalas.” COLINAS, Antonio. En los prados sembrados de ojos. Op. cit.
 It will be explained later, the exhibition took place in New York and San Francisco.
 Both quotes in this paragraph: GANCEDO, Teresa. Reality is the foundation of my plastic language. In the catalogue “New Images from Spain”. New York: Guggenheim Museum, 1980, p. 58.
 CALVO SERRALLER, Francisco. Jóvenes españoles en Nueva York: Panorama sobre el puente. Madrid: “Arteguía”, nº 54, IV/1980, p. 11.
 ESTEBAN, Claude-PALAZUELO, Pablo. Palazuelo. Paris: Editions Maeght, 1980. Version in Spanish: Barcelona: “Ediciones 62”, p. 60.
 GANCEDO, Teresa. Reality is the foundation of my plastic language. Op. cit.
 ROWELL, Margit. Poetic realism: Teresa Gancedo. In the catalogue “New Images from Spain”. New York: Guggenheim Museum, 1980, pp. 20-22
 GANCEDO, Teresa. Reality is the foundation of my plastic language. Op. cit.
 MERLEAU-PONTY, Maurice. Le visible et l’invisible. Paris: Gallimard, 1964, p. 177.
 PERMANYER, Lluís. Catalana en el Guggenheim. La recordación trágico-poética de Teresa Gancedo. Op. cit. pp. 42-43.
 GANCEDO, Teresa. Notas. In “Teresa Gancedo. Discurso sobre la realidad”. Zaragoza: Pepe Rebollo gallery, II/1979, s/p.
 She was the artist, in the words of the commissioner, that was further away from the proposed canon, that was abstract, besides having a generational difference in relation to most of the others, who rather belonged to the generation of the ‘50s.
 I am referring to the exhibition where Rowell was the commissioner a few years later. Centre Pompidou, Qu’est-ce que la sculpture moderne?, París, 3 Julio-13 Octubre 1996.
 Hilton Kramer (Gloucester, 1928-Harpswell, 2012) leaded the art critic in “The New York Times”, between 1965 and 1982.
 KRAMER, Hilton. Art: New Images From Spain ‘Shown. New York: “The New York Times”, 28/III/1980. We could translate this as “a softer and more meditative way of representing painting (…) that combines vivid realistic details with some very intriguing and poetic evocations of death and aging.” Kramer had previously commented the work of Guillermo Pérez Villalta.
 SIMMONS ZELENKO, Lori. Vernissage-New images from Spain. USA: “L’Officiel”, III/1980, pp. 17-18.
 WOLFF, Theodore F. Perplexing new images from Spain. Boston: “The Christian Science Monitor-Arts/Entertainement”, 7/IV/1980.
 “Los seres queridos” (1977).
 SULLIVAN, Edward J. Structure and tradition in some new images from Spain. New York: “Art Magazine”, IV/1980, pp. 142-145.
 LARSON, Kay. Worldly Goods. New York: “Voice”, 8/V/1980, p. 84.
 NADEL, Norman. Spanish art. Alive and burning. New York: “Index Journal”, 5/V/1980.
 PALMER LEEPER, John. Spanish Images to open. San Antonio: “The North San Antonio Times”, 17/VII/1980, p. 5.
 UBIÑA, Senén. Chillida, Basque Man of Iron-Also “New Image” Shows Young Spain. New York: “Art/World”, 19/III-18/IV/1980, Vol. 4, nº 7, p. 13.
 In this regard, we recommend this fine analysis: ROCHA DE SOUSA, João. In “Teresa Gancedo. Discurso sobre la realidad”. Zaragoza: Pepe Rebollo gallery, II/1979.
 COLINAS, Antonio. En los prados sembrados de ojos. Op. cit.
 Centre Culturel et Social Municipal, Evidence/Apparence, Limoges, Mayo 1979.
 GANCEDO, Teresa. Mi trabajo plástico. Op. cit.
 UBIÑA, Senén. Chillida, Basque Man of Iron-Also “New Image” Shows Young Spain. Op. cit.
 GAMONEDA, Antonio. Teresa Gancedo y la realidad poética. Op. cit. p. 39. The italics are form the poet.
 I am referring to the aforementioned homonymous work of Marcel Duchamp: “À l’Infinitif (La Boîte Blanche)”, 1966-1967. Vid. CLAIR, Jean. L’oeuvre de Marcel Duchamp. Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne-Centre National d’Art et de Culture Georges Pompidou, 1977. Nº cat.170, p. 140. Vid. DUCHAMP, Marcel. Duchamp du signe. Paris: Flammarion, 2013. p.131, underlines the term “aparition.”
 “Reliquias” (relics) was the title of two works by the artist exhibited at the Guggenheim Museum, 1980.
 BENJAMIN, Walter. Una carta sobre Kafka. In “Iluminaciones”. Op. cit. p. 191.
 BONNEFOY, Yves. Antología. Op. cit.
 Title of a work by Gancedo from 1978, exhibited in New York in 1980 in the Suñol collection.
 This “shock” matter and the mention in the paragraph are, again, debtors of BENJAMIN, Walter. Sobre algunos temas en Baudelaire. In “Iluminaciones”. Barcelona: Penguin Random House, 2018, p. 278.
 The quote comes from the very BENJAMIN, Walter. Una carta sobre Kafka. Op. cit. p. 168.
 NABOKOV, Vladimir. Habla, memoria. Barcelona: Anagrama, 1994, p. 21.
 Margit Rowell: “For that exhibition, I visited the studios of 91 Spanish artists.” BOSCO, Roberta. Fernando Vijande, el amigo español de Andy Warhol. Madrid: “El País”, 7/XI/2017. And, in recent words of Rowell: “J’ai travaillé au moins deux ans et peut-être plus sur l’exposition et j’ai le souvenir que j’ai visité environ 90 ateliers d’artiste, à Madrid, Barcelona, Ibiza, Valencia, Cuenca et au pays basque (essentiellement Bilbao)”. Email thread between this author and Margit Rowell, 12/XI/2018. In the words of Guillermo Pérez Villalta, “Margit’s visit was the world of art’s favorite conversation topic while she was in Spain.” PÉREZ VILLALTA, Guillermo. Espejo de la memoria. Madrid: Mecánica Lunar, 2021, p. 154.
 Ten, if we consider the added presence of José Luis Alexanco at the aforementioned exhibition at the Hastings Gallery, Spanish Institute, New York.
 Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New Images from Spain, New York, March 21-May 11, 1980 [and San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, October 5-November 30, 1980] and (with the same title) at Hastings Gallery/Spanish Institute, New York, March 19-May 3, 1980. Participants: Sergi Aguilar, (José Luis Alexanco), Carmen Calvo, Teresa Gancedo, Muntadas/Serran Pagan, Miquel Navarro, Guillermo Pérez Villalta, Jorge Teixidor, Dario Villalba and Zush.
 ROWELL, Margit. Poetic realism: Teresa Gancedo. Op. cit. To follow the commissioner’s and the artist’s intentions, we recommend the text attached to this publication in the section “texts selection.”
 The difficulties at customs upon the arrival of the sand in the United States have been a historically overstated issue, leading to misunderstandings, as for example in: PÉREZ VILLALTA, Guillermo. Espejo de la memoria. Op. cit. p. 157.
 Correspondence between the artist and this author, 18/VIII/2021.
 Conversation between the artist and this author, 6/VIII/2021.
 Lucy Lippard organized the fundamental exhibition “Eccentric Abstraction” at the Marilyn Fischbach Gallery in New York, in 1966.
 ROWELL, Margit. Poetic realism: Teresa Gancedo. Op. cit.
 The coinciding wish to design a new time of art could be followed in the interview: COMBALÍA, Victoria. Entrevistas con Barbara Rose. Barcelona: “Batik”, nº 52, XI/1979, pp. 29-31 Rose’s exhibition took place at the Grey Gallery in New York in 1979, and at some point, the expected title was close to Rowell’s: “Image painting”, Ibid. p. 30. Grey Gallery, American Painting: The Eighties, New York, September 5-October 13, 1979.
 The term came from Rowell; to understand the meaning of the commissioner’s work, through her words, it is essential to read the interview: HUICI, Fernando. Pintura española en Nueva York. Entrevista con Margit Rowell conservadora del museo Guggenheim. Madrid: “El País”, 26/VII/1979. Both exhibitions were opened in a join event on March 20.
 On March 21, at the very Guggenheim Museum, the following took place: “discussion group: The New Generation of Visual Art in Spain: Aguilar, Calvo, Gancedo, Teixidor, Pérez Villalta. Moderator: Daniel Serra Badué. Spanish Institute, 19.30 h” (sic.). Moderators: Margit Rowell and Dore Ashton. The term “new generation” was known in Spain thanks to exhibitions promoted by the critic and painter Juan Antonio Aguirre under the title “New Generation” that took place in 1967 and 1977. I have underlined that sometimes it was an atypical “non-group” with various composition styles, lacking a manifesto, the participants had a diverse creative typology, etc. We will admit that it was rather a gathering of atypical artists, eager for a change of course of Spanish art, a new generation of artists that were mainly looking forward to international pop art and constructive art. The aforementioned debate in New York seemed to respond — or state ironically? — with the terminology “new generation.”
 About the presence of the Spanish world in the openings vid.: CALVO SERRALLER, Francisco. Arte español en Nueva York.Madrid: “El País-Artes”, Año II, nº 22, 29/III/1980. The article was illustrated with a photograph by Luis Pérez-Mínguez, who witnessed that journey through his photographs. And the opinions, also the divergent ones, vid.: CALVO SERRALLER, Francisco. Jóvenes españoles en Nueva York: Panorama sobre el puente. Madrid: “Arteguía”, nº 54, IV/1980, pp. 8-11.
 GANCEDO, Teresa. Reality is the foundation of my plastic language. In the catalogue “New Images from Spain”. Op. cit. p. 58.
 We have thoroughly explained this in DE LA TORRE, Alfonso. Soledad interrumpida (y sonora). In “José Luis Alexanco. Ejercicio temporal, 1964-2020”. Madrid: Comunidad de Madrid-Alcalá 31, 2020, pp. 89-102.
 Between April 1st and 19.
 Some notes ago, we have already mentioned the discussion group that took place on March 21. Another one took place one week later, on March 28 at the Landmark Gallery: “discussion group: New Images from Spain: Muntadas, Zush, Villalba, Navarro. Moderators: Margit Rowell and Dore Ashton. Landmark Gallery” (469, Broome St.). The private reception with collectors took place on March 26.
 Through the mediation of Fernando Vijande, Teixidor had a studio at the Clocktower that belonged to the PS1, from September 1979 until 1981. Participation at the exhibition: International Studio Program, 1980–1981 (Fall 1980), September 28-November 9, 1980, MoMA PS1. Courtesy of Jordi Teixidor, 2/XI/2018. In regard to the interest for the Spanish, Rowell also mentioned the presence of a monograph dedicated to Spanish art in “Art News” that year.
 The Museum of Modern Art, Pablo Picasso: A Retrospective, New York, May 16-September 30, 1980. The retrospective, commissioned by William Rubin, comprised 109 works.
 CALVO SERRALLER, Francisco. Arte español en Nueva York. Op. cit. The exhibition was re-built in 2018 at the José de la Mano gallery, commissioned by this author. A newspaper-catalogue recalling that historic moment of our art where Teresa Gancedo took part was issued.