Text published in the catalog
Madrid-Caracas, 2020-2021: Galería Odalys
Translation: Adrián Flores




Rrose Sélavy proclame que la miel de sa cervelle est la merveille qui aigrit le fil du ciel.

DESNOS, Robert.  Corps et bien.  Paris: Gallimard, 1968, p. 41



Great artists, whose images have been conserved in the halls of museums, are those who have established a particular connection, a different relationship to the times in which they lived.   While this time—our time—has collapsed, owing to the vain profusion of the images that artists seem to set aside to concentrate, parsimonious, on their task.  Creation supposes a reference to time, and exercises active awareness of transcendence.   A broadening of the conscience and the inquiry into a world of new meanings capable of exploring new possibilities for lines, formal structures, planes or colorations as drivers of mysterious forcefields created in space. Is what we see reality?  When thinking about this writing, my memory moved between two verses, one from Dickenson, which endures, in which pain seems to be a great space, and the adorable journey of Nabakov, in the landscapes of Ada, in which creation is a flying carpet eager to explore territories[1].

Be it fiction or reality, the artists ask, their language remains a presence, and by invoking the signs, they may be contemplated.A wandering of the imagination, from alternate visions, geometric creation proposes an art which eludes visual hierarchies, an art of suggestion and intensity, by way of the exercise of the symbolic. This, as Warburg taught, more than elevating certainties, is able to convert creation into an extense range for questions, an album and territory of beautiful strangeness. Delving into the reflection on space—interior space—but also that situated in one’s surroundings, the artists gathered for this exposition seem to propose that the gaze and the observer do their work. Ultimately, a painting would be a resonance camera, a secret energy, populated by questions, like arborescent thoughts. Reminiscent of Robert Desnos, the artist awaits another imagination to reclaim the images, an unleashing of ideas and broadening of questions.    As they advance in the gloom, in their multi-directional tentativeness, their path is left full of embers, like an aesthetic interregnum, sensation, and perception, that does not rule out the offer of transcendence on the face of the creation of this new world, offered to the observer to share.   Allegorical, engrossed in the mystery and surprise of the joyous exercise of poetic otherness, their exploration ends up touching the very limits of perception, quickly elevating the game of illusions, as a mandate of the energetic motor of creation.   Geometry is converted into energy, new images seem constructed on the elimination of those which existed before, like a subversion of the real world, highlighting the inability of theories to explain routine paths, as it is a way to access the complex.  Artists on alert, paintings wandering in a trance to be revealed, without disregarding the hermetic air, something not within the grasp of the most common vision, but joining his work with the mysterious and unknown, grown as an epiphany, tempted to reveal forms that have roamed the world. Others emerge, and remember those potent and strange chords inhabited by observers, who become the artist’s resonating conscience.  Other visions of order and geometry.



Interpretation can cause the will to rave.

Marcel Duchamp (letter to Guy Weelen, New York, 26/VI/1955)[2]

“I said before that space is a mystery”, Palazuelo would write. “For me, it is like an ocean of energy. That energy is matter that manifests, or not, in our perception. The ocean of matter is full, and therein, everything is amplified, everything communicates, is born, and reabsorbed. The space of any dimension before which an artist is situated, in demand of a vision, is the ‘reflection’ or ‘symbolic’ space of another, who constitutes the mystery of that which is ‘unrestrictedly abundant’. The dots, lines, forms, and colors, are the matter with which artists dream—Imagine conjointly”[3]. This occurred with the scriptural Albert Gleizes (Paris, 1881 – Avignon, 1953), submerged in the restlessness of his mystical life, another artist on alert. To see is to imagine, a thought which he defended from Cubism theory, of which he was a precursor. His search must however match a hermetic world, not far removed from certain questions from other contemporaries of Puteaux. The most widely-recognized of these is uneasy Duchamp, with whom he would share a certain spatial intoxication.   Awareness, as a series of distanced flashes, the elevation of a possible optical alphabet, imbued with the fragility of the appearences it creates, deconstructs, and proposes so as to reconstruct in a new, separate reality, in which color is a capital element.    As with Marcel, the world of representation is questioned with incessant queries about the dimensions of space and transformation, a perceptive poetic, radiance, and state of thought.

Delirium of an interpretation of willingness, distillation of an introverted imagination[4], that could be contemplated recently in this gallery on the occasion of the “Universo MADÍ” exposition, a group officially formed in Buenos Aires in 1946— Geometrics fascinated by the poetry of forms.   Thus, with the manual aspect of their productions, their playful relationship with space, the defense of the evocative, meditated invention of impulse, or the separation from other twentieth-century movements, such as realism or symbolism, the image would be, in the end, “freed”, as the MADÍ’s would come to write.  Further: the rejection of expressionism or automatism[5] also demonstrates distance from surrealism, which is deemed an archaic[6] hindrance[7].  It was an imaginative and cerebral process, they say, toying with terminological amphibology[8] from a character which habitually commends contradiction, enjoyment in the presentation of opposites.  They were extremely imaginative, inviting in their uninhibited journey through history. They rejected norms and permanently provided models to build; they revendicated extreme invention, as they alluded to past figures, including Gropius, Kandinsky, Mondrian, and Pevsner[9].The immediate arrival of MADÍ to Paris influenced GRAV (Groupe de Recherche d’Art Visuel) on the globalization of shaped canvas and their vindication in North America.   In MADÍ, the creation of pluridimensional space by way of a certain perspectivization and dynamism, a kinetic telos that inquires into the plane or composition through its dynamic encounter, the defense of painting, and superposition as an essential creative form, were also frequent[10].




Chirino said of Arturo Berned that he was an incessant explorer[11] (Madrid, 1966).   He believes that creation is a necessity, confronted with spatial problems on the elevation of forms in this extense, multidimensional nothing that seizes the world. This does not rule out the search for emotion[12], and considers, in lockstep, blank space to be populated by diverse ideas and possibilities.  Berned delved into formal structures and problems in a disturbing, unending journey. His sculptures frequent a certain interior monologue, for which reason perhaps it is to be expected that many creations bare the title “Cabeza” (head), “Caja” (box) (as in his “Caja XLIII”, of 2018) and “Máscara” (as in “Máscara VII y VIII”, of 2019), which mention not only the purity of forms, but also the aspect of the images related to the face or thought, introverted imagination, a true example of this wandering imagination.   Restlessness and imagination define this artist, sculptor, and poet of forms[13].

Silence permeates the spectacular reflections in many of Nicolas Schöffer’s (Kalocsa, Hungary, 1912-Paris, 1992)[14] sculptures. The metals flicker, metal banners rotate, invisible spheres seem to emerge in their center, and on the floor, a dream of chrome gleams.   I reflected, some time ago, on how Moholy-Nagy’s: “Light-Space Modulator” (1922-1930) seemed to be present in the origin of some of Schöffer’s artwork, a fundamental artist, and one who is rarely emphasized in our context. He is more often revendicated by other kinetic-rotators, such as Eusebio Sempere[15], to whom this gallery dedicated a beautiful exposition, in 2015, worthy also of museum walls.[16].  I indicated that, behind that desire for an electrical, mechanical, or luminous encounter, the gorgeous confusion/conjunction between light and shadow, which Schöffer promoted early on, from the mid-fifties, and which is present in “Miniprisme” (1965), another good example, will always prevail in the beginnings of this epic of light and kinetics. One proclaims that, seeming to speak of the outside, of the murmur of space, kinetic noise, that nevertheless arrives immediately to the praise of a tumultuous previous world. “Espaciodinamismo” (Spatial-dynamism), an optical and temporal resolution, in his vocabulary, to which other mysterious words, with a luminous-alchemist air would be added: “luminodinamismo” (luminodynamism), “cronodinamismo” (chronodynamism), or even “ciberdinamismo” (cyberdynamism). The search for an encounter with artwork in a new and mysterious time is always in progress, and as such, is equipped with new tools for both the approach and creation.    A romantic mechanic, whose artworks seems to carry a tumultuous past world.   Extraterritorial, removed from the modular world and the combining or usual permutation principles present in kinetic art, it would carry an air of distinction in whatever was created, more narrative than strictly optic, and implants spatial events—sensations of space, light, and time—removed from reiteration or formal patterns, giving rise to sensitivity and spirit.  He is always visionary and attentive to internal growth, to the revelation of a transcendent thought and ethos, moved by spiritual enrichment.

The gloom advances in multiple directions, a tentative creation of a sculptural space in which experience may be narrated, in an imperious need to express itself, while the path remains populated by the intensity of said experience, constructed from the ideal.  Alejandro Otero (El Manteco, 1921-Caracas, 1990) understood space to be an intimate place, in which one has the ability to move toward the experience of integration in public space, as shown in this gallery’s recent exposition[17].   His artwork sprouted from a singularity, which emerged from an incessant search, in a priority space, for the aporia of the possible expression of undiscovered forms, an anxiety to tempt the formal discovery of that which was found hidden, unknowable, of the cosmic mysteries, a dynamism that exists beyond the world’s stillness. It drags the light[18], seeks an energizing space composed of vibrant cubic hearts[19], circular fires, seeds[20], or forms that generate a tense, serious emptiness that travels from normative vision to the sensitive. It provokes thought about the enigmas of pictorial space, new questions regarding the material and immaterial, the possibilities of the forms created, fields of color, and the liminal, in an attempt to reach the limit with both extreme emotional strength and intense mystery.

Reminded me of Beckett’s poem about the skull.    Alberto Bañuelos (Burgos, 1949) often practiced the mysterious exercise of concealment-revelation. Bañuelos draws the sculpture in permanent formalization-deformalization, to deconstruct, in his words, in an almost demiurgic act, in incessant activity, with stones submitted to a new language, exploring the possibilities of certain natural materials, especially different minerals.  As observed in “Opus 560-Deconstrucción Nº 66” (2008) and “Opus 900-Deconstrucción Nº 392 (Picasso XVIII)” (2013), for this sculptor, creation was to tempt the revelation of the mysteries of the universe. He seems an artist in search of another order, very spiritual, which obliges the observer to consider the mystery of forms, and as such, of the world.  This is understood as an unavoidable need to deeply penetrate reality, as in a story of transfiguration.

Mysterious is the wooden object of monochromist Sergio de Camargo (Rio de Janeiro, 1930-1990), circa 1960, almost a compilation of a mass that ultimately evokes geometry, but also a mysterious atmosphere, emotion, or norm, chaos and order, martial calm. It would seem an onslaught in which opposites are revealed, something which has always been present in his artwork, a governed task, similar to an indefatigable search for truth and transcendent beauty because of a sort of tragic tension, a vigorous silence that seems to keep the artist attentively listening, as the desirous collaborator in the act of form revelation, in search of true vision.

“Serene, luminous, true, precise, clear, incorruptible”[21], to quote Arp, in reference to Carmen Otero’s (Madrid, 1963) work, an artist obstinate about the essential,  As if the visible were all of a sudden sonorous, its sculptures were reconstructions, diverse wooden artwork (cedar, as exhibited, as well as chestnut, birch, iroko, or linden)[22] separated into careful fragments, and later newly assembled in various angulations.   It would seem to stem from the mannequin that created commotion among surrealists, extracted fragments become hollow, so as to compose a new existence between void and shadow.   Said fragments are frequently stained in different colors, smooth shades, compatible with the natural essence of wood.   Seemingly referring to the interior life of those forms that call for a gaze upon the essentials of nature, and which, on transformation or decomposition, are later, again, behind the ellipsis of the rest, recomposed and elevated in space. They areauto-geometrized, in her words, as if converting the duration of the totus into fulguration, or, say, hyperbolic ellipses.   In “Reconstrucción I” Otero seems to reminds us that these heads and their stories resolved in fragments are composed in the same way as a primordial concern, seemingly returning them to their own destiny, the restlessness of thinking, their place, as if referring to the mystery between the place being constructed and the dwelling in which thought reigns—the atrium of knowledge.

The minor as an event.  The mysterious painting, “Reticulárea 80/11” (1980), by artist Gego Gertud (Gego) Goldschmidt (Hamburg, 1912-Caracas, 1994)], accustomed to take creation to the limit of limits, the awareness of the question about the true nature of art, and concluding by not just elevating mere metallic compositions as they reflect upon something as complex as the nature itself of the artistic activity. As a meta-artist, Gego anticipated the numerous artists who, especially in the late sixties, proposed the challenge of questioning the limits of painting. These limits led her to a new energy of the pictorial style, proposal, reflexive, and rarely frequented in the art of our time. Gego seems to subscribe to the maxim about how the destruction of physical space—and hence the provocation of absence, a void—is a constitutive, active part of creation.  The ambitious and varied proposal that emerges in her metallic nettings, in the thinness of her volumes, traced with wire lines, her hunt for space or dialogue with the voids generated therein, that which could be called a singular lyric of eliminations, as occurs in “Reticulárea”, in an actively creative way, the analysis and proposal of new expressive forms[23].




He sought not the general sense, but the unexpected, sunlit clearings, where you can stretch until your joints crunch, and feel as entranced (…) he thought of the blackness of the coniferous night.

Vladimir Nabokov[24]


Praising a certain poetic impenetrability, a kind of harmonic disruption, the presence of a reference to elasticity and the absolute survives in Alexander Calder (Lawton, 1898-Nueva York, 1976) with the encounter between corporeal and abstract, the contention of one form over the other, or on the contrary, their hatching. The compatibility between the rhythmic and arhythmic, that which flows and that which is stagnant, that which is arduous and that which is expressed in a seemingly simple way, all in the same pictorial plane, as a state of transport and metamorphosis.   Color, that counterpoint mentioned by Kandinsky in his analysis of the spiritual in art, in Calder’s work seems to elevate itself from vindication to its inner need, a slow endeavor, an extoller of levity, indulging in the lateness of that which has been carefully envisaged.   There is a certain air of uninhibited geometry and delicate formalism, a beautiful workmanship that moves between the absolute and the delicate, the evident and that which seems soon to vanish, music for the heavens, compositions of liquid air, writings in dreaming flight, rotund forms which evoke a world in silence.   Calder seems to come and go from the bidimensional to the plane, as in the hypnotic artwork exhibited, which seems to bubble—forms in the San Juan night.  Synthesizing his work in this interregnum, the coming and going between questions.

A creator of artwork of a deep poetic imprint, from the strength of breath, Mercedes Pardo (Caracas, 1921-2005) was an artist who praised clarity, vindicator of doubt, interrogative, advocate of thought and of that which is beyond appearances, enigmatic and sensitive.  Thus, Pardo’s creative proposal frequently addresses the careful encounter of modulated spaces, the creation of geometry with a vocation of transcendence in a tense silence, in the wakes of certain admired painters and evoked thereby. Fra Angelico and Joan Miró come to mind.  An explorer of the possibilities of lines and planes, with a tendency toward the expansion of fields of color, not so much as a substance on a surface, bur rather as a subtle motor of a field of forces developed in the painting, transforming her structures, which seem a permanent question about forms, order, number, and proportion. A rational articulation of extremely rich visual play, which I sometimes see partnered with the work of Gerardo Rueda, an artist that seriously proposed himself not to keep up[25]: transparencies, shadows, lines, planes, and interior light, subtle paths, his paintings were that of refined painter and had the sole objective to arrive, via sensual rigor (“Sombras”, “Pálpito”, and “Memoria” would come to be titles of these works of art), to that which is essential.

A journey toward the limits of things, Rosa Brun’s (Madrid, 1955) work has been characterized by a rigorous, abstract proposal and profound inquiry into color, owing to the elevation of an orderly work, but not with a cold attitude. A silent, dialectical air is fundamental in her work, a disturbing rumor that generates questions. Among the most relevant of these may be the relationship of the artwork with space, and the inquiry into the limits of monochromes themselves.  This analysis of form and color will lead a meta artistic, in-depth reflection with a malinconic point about the exercise of painting.  The analysis of vibration produced in her paintings—that sometimes transform into objects to contemplate and consider, which is exemplified in the Rothkian “Dyson” (2019-2020)—reflects on questions that seem to extend beyond what is merely visual, an extension of the concept of “painting” in the sense of the application of pigments on a mere flat surface, for when painting meets the creation of “pictorial objects” or “painted sculptures”, it would seem to construct instead a question-generating machine.  Inquiry into the limits mentioned previously, as occurs in “Kara” (2016) in the search for a certain revelation of perception, tension of appearances in the absolute thirst of a painter obsessed with her task[26].

More than lines or planes, forms or colors, illusions on matter, José María Cruz Novillo (Cuenca, 1936) frequented a poetry of space, or in a wider and more intense sense, a meditation on forms and space, that which we know as visible work.      Cruz Novillo is a creator who has walked on the boundaries of art history, potent and energetic, capable of creating artwork that, over the years, has been characterized by its distinction, establishing deep, formal proposals that have enquired about the fire that the images consume.  Thus his “Tribute to Morandi d’après Zurbarán should be understood, a cycle of two hundred fifty-six unique works of art by Cruz Novillo[27], created with all of the combinations with repetition of the four contraptions from Zurbarán’s still-life, which hangs in the Museo Nacional del Prado. It involves a “tetraphonic diaphragm”, in accordance with the denomination used by the artist, since the beginning of the 1990s in synesthetic artwork such as “Diafragma decafónico de dígitos” for the facade of the Instituto Nacional de Estadística, or “Diafragma dodecafónico, opus 14, which will endure for 3,390,410 years, which opened in ARCOmadrid in 2010, and which will continue to its culmination on the artist’s webpage.    Seeker of a dimensional utopia, developing this thoughtful geometry, tempted by conceptual art without evading an intense irony, his art, so nonthematic, has been a tempting exercise as the creative elements must serve not for the game of forms, but to promote reflection in a process, theirs, listening attentively.  Ethical commitment with the living via aesthetics, Cruz Novillo’s art has also been committed to intelligence, the mystery of space, reflecting with a hypersensitive, subtle, analytical air on the construction of visual metaphors, whose technique (pictorial, sculptural, musical, or sonorous, profoundly poetic) has sometimes needed to be invented to achieve his system of expression[28].

While reviewing the intensity of Jesús Matheus’ (Caracas, 1957) trajectory, on which this gallery will briefly present its first solo exhibition in Spain[29], I reflected on the way in which it implies an extraordinary proposal for the questioning of space, as this restless artist[30] has made it possible to join that which is stable with that which seems fragile, that which is gentle with that which is imposing, something depleted with something that resembles a fragment of the path of thought, splinters evidence here and everywhere, rousing embers.  An ode to painting, his work is also a permanent inquiry into the pictorial space, sculpture and forms, but it also comes from thought of the absence or the void, the possibilities of creation that Matheus constitutes in the elevation of a territory of exercises with great self-referential marks[31], for more than axioms, our artist gives rise to poetry revealed in the immense task of construction as the motto of his work, construction as a continuous reality[32], not in vain would he express, doubtless, that his endeavor is that mentioned, “an ode to painting, ritual of human existence”[33].

Javier Victorero (Oviedo, 1967) has elevated forms which frequently emerge from kingdoms of darkness, but it now seems conclude a journey, displaced from his paintings suspended in the fog of years ago from the more current, sharp versions, but with the sediment of the pale light of W.G. Sebald, who in painting, reminds me of the still extensions of Árpád Szenes.   Especially, when I contemplate these paintings from his cycle “El sueño del jardinero” (The gardener’s dream), they resemble places occupied by moss; veiled, rusted surfaces like the dense interior atmospheres of Vuillard.    Compositions trembling between being and not being, that which is patent and that which is blurred toward decomposition, voices within voices, forms a la Ad Reinhardt or that evoke certain liquid tremors of Barnett Newman or Agnes Martin, the permanent doubt of Blinky Palermo, the careful spirit of Hemut Federle: forms emerging from the surface, enjoying the hard-edge game, the journey toward certain invisibility.   Victorero teases with a painting that is always of transcendent vocation, populated now by a certain oblique gaze, a world of angular leaks like Olle Bærtling, forms displaced across latticework, networks or weaves, and explosive, zig-zagging symbols like golden fish, perhaps demonstrating the need to pause and contemplate.

An open door to the invisible —as the title of one of his 2019 works of art (exhibited) reads—, an encounter with poetry, mentioning the creations of Robert Ferrer i Martorell (Valencia, 1978) led me to think about, recently, Edmond Jabès and Yves Bonnefoy, poets of nudity and lethargy, who praise a world in suspension, inhabited by deserted streets.   Poets of the door open to questions. “I sought the limit and found the unlimited.  I sought the unlimited and found the limit”[34], said Jabès.      Or the questions of Maurice Blanchot on the certainty of white, evocative of Ferrer in one of his monochromes a white storms.   The art of thinking, as a stage of the process, as in “Estructuras en construcción” (2020), a poetic vibration of the signs in the luminary of the space.   Thoughts about the enigmas of pictorial space, displacements, and pretenses that do not avoid their relationship with the void, always from this poetic dimension.     Ferrer seems to tease with the extension of space, transforming it, folding or bending it on itself; sections of diverse expansions, fragments traveling in weightlessness, constructions locked like a careful forger of transparencies which reveal the sleep of agitated life of forms.  A silent artist who frequents an extraterritorial atmosphere in his proposal, as a painter of enigmas, his ordered world never ceases to propose forms with paradoxical atmosphere atmospheres that avoid the mere formal games and inquire entropically, in a type of aporia: around the fire that consumes the images[35].

Sliding, as the essence of his being, the elevation of a world that frequently dematerializes the immaterial, or on the contrary, materializes the immaterial, a universe which emerges from light, it is the search of David Magán (Madrid, 1979). His inquiry emerged from lightness and mystery, proposed from certain hieroglyphics of light which emerged from another labyrinth, the vain conformation of the real.   Its essence is a journey taken slowly among the very faint, which praises that which is constructed, an art inherited from those many artists who have always dreamed of lines and strange radiance emanating from that which is unknown[36].   As in this “Torre I” (2016), where the faint forms seem to expand in a certain eulogy of three-dimensional dynamism, we find a creation that evokes a writing in which light may reveal itself in the air: luminous planes, reverberations of color displaced in space, emulating forms, it resembles sometimes the vertigo of a journey into the faint. Meditating on the enigmas of the presence of light, and performing said inquiry about the possibility of the transfiguration of forms with impalpable radiance, reveals this illusion for tempting unknown spaces that wander, incandescent, through space, in such a way that his work is done not so much on the physical space in which things move, as in this other uncharted point, mysterious, an intermediate kingdom of vibrations, in which the perception of he who contemplates the artwork reigns.

An artist subjected to an extraordinary restlessness, Arnaldo Pomodoro (Montefeltro, 1926) will not be far removed from the cracks or “Concetto spaziale, Natura” of Lucio Fontana.   With the history of art traversed by the imposition of the images, the tentativeness of his sovereignty, Pomodoro proposes a suspension of time that thus remains interrupted, arriving at a topology of new forms that seem to free familiar images.    As occurs in “Imagen de madrugada” (1974), exhibited, Pomodoro seems to persecute the unending, escaping from the legible absolute, the incompletion of the truths that get laid out, in an opening toward unpredictable places. Among these is the anamnestic memory of the creator, whom, with said effort to show himself, elevates the territories of his downfall.  Proposing in many cases artwork of environmental character, the beginning of the proposition come abut—forgetfulness turned into form able to communicate with the observer, as he who walks the path to find the tracks.  Instead of the vain sovereignty of the image that traverses art history and its fatuous temporality, Pomodoro proposes a place of loss—an accident, a sculpture as an occurrence that does not directly allude to formal play, and mentions the void, the image resuscitated as an extenuated expression of an unachievable search, never imprisonment.

A restless artist with the appearance of mysterious serenity, a stillness to the point of breaking, the endeavor of Sebastián Nicolau (Valencia, 1956) has been, throughout fifty years of trajectory[37], that of a constant artist.   I have compared him to Pomodoro, deliberately, as Nicolau also submits his gaze to the mysteries of seeing, inquiring about that what the image is, its construction or existence, and the displacement that entail the phenomena of the creation of said images toward the position of those who remain contemplating them. An artist tempted by the journey in the gloom in multiple directions, his art distills a plentitude of questions that make it resistant to categorization.    To sew, stitch, allude to the reconstruction and reparation, many of the creations of Sebastián Nicolau are also forms of drawing—signs elevated with thread or something that mimics it; a tracing of paths or possible courses, to live is to connect the dots.   As occurs in his exciting “Cartones entre hilvanes rojos y cordones” (2012), currently exhibited, his artwork acquires the condition of true writing—hieroglyphics perhaps—small lines that seem to remain activated as if they’re ready to carry on their task of piercing the other side, and perhaps, appearing once again: the labyrinth that could lead us to a center.  They have occasionally reminded me of musical scores, and it surprises me to not see him mentioned among the irredeemable kleeians, as many of the compositions which emerged from the bastes, or their representation, acquire an air of grid and structure.

As with Nerval, Pablo Armesto (Schaffhausen, 1970) marches, solitary, singing a mysterious hymn, like a song from another place in existence, as if the path elevates to its enhanced star[38].   The fluidity of the artist to conceive images that seem to mention a certain serenity arose from the questions, Armesto inquires in an exploratory thought that offers a stillness distilled form the poetic geometry that surrounds the forms.  As a nocturnal gift, “Estelar 11.50 C” (2018), is revealed as an inner experience returned to the world of images, with an air of unfolding appearances, nomadic images, errant images crossing borders.  Diary of light[39], seeing his work, experimenting with these images, I believe it is possible to evoke the art of our time, but why not also the return of his artwork to the immemorial world of the silence of painting, like the mysteries of Vermeer or De la Tour, the bodies suspended between the questions of light and space, the luminous gaps of Rembrandt or the icy seas of Friedrich.

Alejandro Corujeira (Buenos Aires, 1961) has reflected on the visual enigmas that tend toward forms, teasing with paintings all over, without limits, a conceptual reflection in which they are dissolved into extremely pictorial and poetic thought. Light of a painter whose work has a solitary, meditative air, that establishes questions in space, many times about the void, on ways to establish order, in permanent concern for the creation of a system of ideal symbols capable of determining a new universal perception.  I always considered the artwork of Emilio Gañán (Plasencia, 1971) to be like that of another dreamer of lines, and have written, several times, that I contemplated these paintings in the midst of a profound silence, which recalls the painter from Bern who thus “dreamed”[40] of thirst and a search for lines to generate forms in the confusion of space. Of course—I thought—, space was… is beautiful, but also terrible: “What terribly sober things these are: the canvas, background, coloration […] Above all the light, the spatial effect as a result of the light”, Klee dixit[41].  Recently, Emilio confessed to me that “This old school continues to drink from Klee’s poetry, one of the most joyful of which to dream. These lines he took for walks seem to invite us to the surreal world of his genius”[42], also mentioning his interest in games of naive depth that were frequent in Klee.  We arrived to his metaphysical harbor.

Fragmentary visions, seemingly in transit, distilled from fleeting visions captured in reality.  Thus should the artwork of Dixon and Rojas be understood.   For Antonio Rojas (Tarifa, 1962), “the solution to the plastic problem becomes a battlefield. Despite the meanings and underlying conceptualism in painting, this should speak for itself. And so the poetics of the image reach, preferentially, the eye, before the interpretation, and the painting becomes a mystery in itself and transcends the mere fact of representation (…) the tension emerges from the need to handle the architectonic space immediately, and the fruit, which initially was the resource, becomes the counterpoint needed to show the human vision and perception of the world, as well as its magnitude”[43]. Art proves to be the object of an encounter, forever renewed in character, one might call it the intimacy, of creation and its external manifestation.  This tension reveals the contradictions of life itself.   Removing the veil of appearances, as in “Aquí y ahora” and “Contraluz” (2020), which, like a heartbeat, return us to the way in which the enigmatic inherent condition of creation constitutes the search for the discovery of something beyond the fatuous certainty of formal reality.  Further, the words of Mónica Dixon (New Jersey, 1971) evade our own: “In my continual search and preoccupation for light —in a constant dialogue that I maintain in my artwork between artificial and natural light— I do not seek detail, but rather the minimal figurative references to create sensations. In this search, I have progressively robbed the pictorial space of all that which I perceived as anecdotal. Individuals and objects inconvenienced me. They distracted me from that which, in reality, I wished to see: space painted in itself, the vibration of light in the atmosphere, the essential solitude of the scene. We sometimes transit through the places in which we live without knowing what we retain from them. Time passes, and we are not told what happens therein, but we are taken to the shelter of a timid light that converses with us. The reality that will prevail in the face of our evanescence is not that of individual objects, or their particular configuration in space, but rather space in itself, and the light that reveals it. Space as a compartment that describes the scenography of life”, as may be contemplated in the artwork exhibited: “Red, black & green” and “Soirée” (2020), which, in her words, are not mere constructions or a void, but a presence: “By way of the manipulation of space and light, I attempt to trace the duality between what we are and are not. Sceneries printed in my mind, visualized from the need of remembering, and proposed based on the concept of a spatial void.  Because it is us, individuals, who lend form to those places in which we live. It is the body itself that activates space, not the existence of space itself. Removing the objects that lend meaning to our lives leaves us no other option but to look within to fill those spaces that seem to appear. It is this constant search for belonging and acceptance that motivates me and that I seek to reflect in my work”[44].

Gerd Leufert (Klaipeda, Lithuania (Memel), 1914-Caracas, 1998) , discussed, in his trajectory, an expanded endeavor that would not exclude concentration, investigating images and their perception, the viewer’s relationship to artwork, the effects of the superposition of forms, lines, and planes, and their encounter with the real.    Adventures of lines, elemental geometrical structures that, as in the beautiful acrylic painting exhibited, ask themselves about the poetics of movement, as if elevating one’s own agitated life, an activated space that is dialectical, for it is, pulsatingly subjected to whom contemplates critical situations.   Perceptive experience of the slight changes which occur with the use of forms and planes.   Questions regarding structure, the position of forms in the world, variations, the encounter of opposites, dilemmas about that which is temporal, the structuring of visual surfaces and incessant transformation.

A sensible objectivity seems to govern Waldo Balart’s (Banes, 1931) work, as an artist who frequently adds resonances to his writing that move quickly and unhesitant from the constructive towards the spiritual.   Voices of the past brought to the present, which Balart, this indefatigable artist, proclaims: “beauty”, “mystery”, “fantasy”, “sensitivity”, “spiritual”, “infinite”, or “harmony”.  Verbi, these and others, which to not perish.  On the occasion of the presence of Waldo’s artwork at the exhibition in this gallery, “El trabajo de lo visible”[45], I wrote that the mystery of spaces was always his concern, remaining impenitent, exploring the ethos of forms and lines, propositions disciplined from a traveler in search of knowledge and creation, considering inner reflection an essential element, a thought whose depth has arrived to a certain mysticism of creation: “I consider art to be an ethical commitment to life by way of aesthetics, and a path to knowledge, in which the path and structure of artwork offer rigor and discipline, and color the fantasy. I call my paintings ‘propositions’, because through these I propose a sensible, original, and unique solution, in which significance and signifier are fused with no reference to any object or reality foreign to these. I implement my work systematically, by way of series. I consider light to be the origin of colors, and colors to be their quality. Simultaneously, they are their structure, measured in wavelengths and frequencies. I limit the forms I use to basic geometric figures with the objective of standardizing form, and thus emphasize the relevance of color and the interaction between different components of the ‘proposition'”[46].

His physichromies, such as “Psyhichromie” (1967) and “Psyhichromie N.º 2347” (1994), seem to be conceived as stories, as occurs with their added colors (“Color Aditivo Serie Verano Uno 05” (2006) “Color Aditivo Caracas D1” (2010)), or, those colors that poetically displace space (“Couleur à l’espace Printemps 1” (2015) and “Induction du Jaune Nov 06-06” (2006)). Artwork of the ineffable Carlos Cruz-Diez (Caracas, 1923–Paris, 2019), images of an artist in permanent inquiry about space, who always exercised the use of the proclamation: minimal resources-maximum power.  His artwork was tempting, from an excited sense of the aesthetic experience, praising the apparently simple, nevertheless with difficult implementation.  Emotivity submitted to a strange intensity from a catalogue of questions about color, forms, and representation.  Cruz-Diez thus transited seemingly lost nooks of perception and memory, asking questions around the ability to see, confusing painted lines and those elevated with matter above the plane, the new immaterial ones that emerge in the optics of color, the shadows that generate the fine metallic elements in paintings, or, on the contrary, the reflections of these and their shadows on pigment. With the appearance of making the complex simple, I sometimes think that his work was hermetic, seemingly invoking the aporia from which he engages his painter side: the search for that which is invisible, tempting the essential profundity and revelation of emotion. By way of minor mentions, he seemed to underscore or modify space, and the spectator shared the aesthetic experience that, in addition to referring to said space, would introduce temporality through the perception of those registered slight changes.   Fleeing from the grandiloquent, Cruz-Diez has referred to the way in which certain events that have occurred in a small place may concentrate the world.


An artist captivated by the possibility of a beautiful world, of his artwork integrating into life, Jesús Rafael Soto’s (Ciudad Bolívar, 1923-Paris, 2005) artwork was heavily influenced by the teachings of the Bauhaus[47].  I always refer to an exciting image, the penetrable[48] of the atrium at the Musée d’Art Moderne in Paris and its visitors under chromatic rain, true interactivity of plastic space.  This coincides, nearly, with the work of Cruz Diez (“Labyrinthe de Chromosaturation [Chromosaturation pour un lieu public]” on the Boulevard Saint-Germain de Paris) or that of Lucio Fontana (“Ambiente Spaziale” in la Dokumenta 4 – Kassel, 1968).    That—we have occasionally written—was the time of a Latin Paris: Soto, Cortázar, Cruz Diez, Jesse Fernández, Le Parc[49].   Some of the artwork present in this exposition—”Núcleo central” (1969), “Rosa negra” (1982), and “Cube noir et rouge” (1995) come to mind—is artwork that calls to the inebriation of seeing, almost living artwork, kinetics created with minimal resources, but with extraordinary efficacy, until sliding into a different place from the optic perspective.  A rigorous artist, straightforward, vindicator of doubt, an artists who questions—I view his geometry with transcendent vocation, explorer of linear possibilities. Soto considered color to be a subtle promotor of a field of strength that develop in space, being able to transform his structures, which seem to permanently question forms, order, number, and proportion.

A conscientious researcher, Francisco Salazar (Quiriquire, Monagas, 1937) has praised white monochrome.  White, white, the victory of white[50], luminous cosmos, disciplined storm of whiteness[51], tentative mystic who displaces painting and its terrain toward a supernatural, secret space, comparable to a sublime abode, bringer of a mystery that is always ineffable.  Salazar has approached an artistic work submitted to an operation for the sake of achieving greater purity: liberating that which is accessory, so as to access the essential, in said auroral space, frequently drifting toward a special kinetic meaning, slipping between the presence and the void, traveling toward the limits, one part of his work occurs in geometric abstraction. An activator of spaces, Salazar seemed to propose the submission of his paintings to a supernatural light, something of Still that he quoted frequently: let us turn off the lights, “the paintings have their own fire”[52].  Thus, the silence endures.  A tense, exploratory silence that investigates the possibilities of lines or forms, a subtle motor of a field of strengths developed in the painting, being able to transform its structures into permanent question, like an exam of the frontiers of awareness, which does not impede the elevation of a certain cartography of dreams—his forms and geometry are paradoxical, often temporary in space, with an air of suspension, embargoed by the light.

One bold painter, Héctor Ramírez (Punta de Mata, Monagas, 1955), without avoiding the elegy, displaced the artistic object toward a silent, emotional, energetic, and free territory, a new kingdom in space.  We are then invited to explore these images, with fluid air frequency or, from there, a praiser of the sphere, a new impulse—climb up to earth, oh transfigured earth and its pure sky.  In creating these illusory spaces in the Spanish context, Manual Rivera and Eusebio Sempere should be mentioned.  I see his painting specular, as if transfigured in liquid, in an attempt to capture the imprecise geometry of that which flows, seemingly referring to time, the metaphor of the pristine, the reflection transformed by the presence of that emotional component, internal vibrations where the observer would have to proceed with their own formal investigations beyond the space in the painting: the observer would be willing to share speculation and the journey through the events that emerge in the forms.

A search of certain cracks in understanding and the labyrinthic access thereto, was of having meaning. Much of the artwork of Victor Vasarely (Pécs, 1908 – Paris, 1997) end up imposing itself in space, and seem subtle fragments of experience and meaning, becoming multiple visual evocations.  Experiments with optical-aesthetic airs, essential, which seem to illuminate each other, as the empire of a strange force of meanings. As one of the researchers and most compelling defenders of constructive experimentation, much of his artwork responds to a planned analytic exercise, in line with the proposals of neoplasticism or constructivism. But his experiments constitute a personal search, and as with many artists of that Paris of le Mouvement in the fifties[53], the attraction to the abstract is clear in the conjunction with different materials and the exploration of new concepts of space and movement, a geometric systematization of color and light, simultaneously in permanent investigation into the creation of a system of symbols and ideal models able to determine a new perception of the universe. Color is considered fundamental in terms of the consequences it provokes, in terms of luminous effects and the creation of space, tension, or equilibriums that generate harmonic, dynamic space.

Knowledge of the rules of space and light, and the function of color also form an essential part of the process of researcher Yvaral (Jean Pierre Vasarely, Paris, 1934-2002), who would yield one of the most pure forms of geometric abstraction: signs, lines, formal elements of refined beauty.  This artist was encountered at the GRAV’s[54] beginnings, from the mention of a certain inheritance of the artists most ordered in their compositions are seen more in the constructive world, also, toward certain moments in the art of intensities that would populate the creative repertoire of our ancestors, who dreamed of forms via compositions that seem to make the world visible, something that tempted his portraits toward the kinetic and pop.  When contemplating his “Accélération Optique. Serie S” (1964), his artwork could be called complex and in-depth, however it does not subtract the seizure of a singular clarity and  precision, poetry, and geometry which are the fruit of intense discipline, horizons, and interferences, compositions with harmonious execution, vindicator or purity in style.

Contemplating “Complejo equilibrio cromático en azul, naranja, rojo y verde” and “Complejo equilibrio cromático en rojo, verde, amarillo y violeta”, both from 2020,  by Tomás García Asensio (Huelva, 1940), I again thought of those investigations performed by the artist on the automatic treatment of color at the Centro de Cálculo at the Universidad de Madrid (CCUM).  His conclusions, in his own words, sought “to suggest the possibility of establishing a system of color exploration from the point of view of plastic arts, and automatically, using certain criteria and principles specific to computer calculation.  It is hoped, further, that this system will facilitate art generation as well as analysis”.  Reflexive and analytical, without negating a poetic and musical air in its forms, it has reflected on the formation of colors on the basis of selection -and interaction- of the three basic colors, to which a numeration, related to their own luminosity, is applied (without valuing that luminosity that may be applied to them owing to their lighting). It also studies the relationship between luminosity and the surface occupied by color, establishing an operative system to relate tones and values in which, in the words of the artist, may be connected by a system of three elements, submitted to certain programmed laws, and which may be automatically expressed.   Norms which, “with a minimum of elements, certain objective values, and certain simple combining systems permit, in the words of the artist, encompassing all of the casuistry of color”.   On the other hand, García Asensio analyzes the luminosity exterior to color itself, in which retinal physical elements come into play (analyzing three types of chromatic situations of human vision that create a number of other possibilities of greater complexity).   To a certain degree, García Asensio is a pioneer of reflection, with intensity, in the close interrelationship between science and art.    In terms of his art, he has indicated that “it is a safe way to avoid representative images. Truly, this art is iconoclast. From this we can gather its geometric similarity with other iconoclast art, in said case, for doctrinal reasons, as with Muslim art. Concrete art is iconoclast because the presence of images would weaken its condition of being , in and of itself, as they would be representations of other things”[55].

Creator of spaces swept by silence, paintings where hardly anything happens, the recent work of Santiago Serrano (Villacañas, 1942) refers to the possibility of a space where planes and lines reside and which acquire the same qualities of a certain dynamism, as revealed in the exhibited “Fade to White VI” (2017); fading of active forms, spaces that highlight the composition as a model to assemble on the white plane. Conceiving oppositions in the field of vision, a watershed that confirms his location beyond the limits of painting, his vision produces in the whole, in the vibrant sensations provoked by his compositions that confront us with a certain lightness of geometry and color, forms crossed by the light of time, possessors of an aftershock.

It is a space, that is proposed by Carlos Evangelista (Salamanca, 1943), in which one journeys toward the infinite, seeking the infinite.    A composition of planes, unfolding nervously into space, and a presence of color composing the limits of surfaces, his artwork, often with wooden assemblages, are conceived from a complex analysis of possibilities, elevating thus the signs between introspection and bereavement, including a certain hermetism that seems to tend toward an amplification of the silence.   This world of formal rhythms sometimes seems to evoke musical compositions, subtle and daring, space is nothing if not the energy and intensity. Evangelista seems to indicate that a space is full of uncertainties in which formal processes are implemented.  His is a space of reflection, set with questions and doubts in which said irradiations create the need for an ambiguous territory, full of questions, as a radical incitation to think. The images burn, as in the end, in his artwork, the process of proposing the resolution of an idea is not just undertaken, but it is no sooner revealed than deconstructed in a continued exploration of the forms. For Evangelista, each of his compositions come from a world in which there is also self-exploration. What is there beyond the boundaries, beyond the end, to tempt one to come closer to glimpse the unknown?

Viewing his “Variante A -Malevich” (2005), a composition which seems to unfold in the space of light, a world in a process of growth, folding and unfolding, visionary ascension -would seem almost inebriated- of the forms, I thought that the artwork of Iñaqui Ruíz de Eguino (San Sebastián/Donostia, 1953) should be ascribed to a special fraternity of thinking geometers. The writing of the lines in space, both in his painting and open-air sculptures, is -“transitable”, he would say-, an exercise of intense reflection on the drifting of variation and the void, poetry about the journey from variation of the minimum to refined contemplation.  It is a space into which one journeys without caesura among the straight, is the intermediate kingdom of movement, lines, emergence and delineation of the infinite seeking itself: there is no beginning or end to the forms, extending into space.    Space and light as emblems of their searches, composition of planes unfolding nervously into space, restriction of color after a clarity emulates light or shadow.  Or dark that grows remembered, rightly so, as the miraculous character of this proposal, its consistence raised from immateriality.

This refers to silences and poetry in this text, which wanders toward its conclusion, brief wood and objects, I think now of the appreciation of white on white of Gerardo Rueda (Madrid, 1926-1996), heir of the snowy excavated panels of Nicholson[56], another low voice, evoking the mid-sixties in certain paintings of the Madrid native, applied to the surface or film on canvas, composing forms, ovals or rectangles, or small “notes” like “commas” in space, stripped nudity that would reveal to what point the endeavor of Rueda would reach, with his discrete character and elegant being, one of the greatest journeys of this Madrid-based dandy toward the limits of painting.   In 1971, his dazzling work was exhibited in the Juana Mordó Gallery, and was composed exclusively of white paintings[57]: “if they are painted white, it is precisely in order not to alter the sense of the idea that I desire and underscore the importance of shadows”[58].  In this disciplined storm of white[59], the exposition was daring and radical[60], and caused deep-seated commotion in the prudish life of Madrid art.   In 1958, Sánchez Camargo qualified Rueda’s pictorial experience as “an almost mystic state”[61] and Juan-Eduardo Cirlot called his pictorial material “a certain mysticism”.[62]Albert C. Sauvenier highlighted the spiritual air of his paintings[63], something which may be appreciated now in “Vidrieras” (1954) and in the final “Caligrafía marrón” (1992).

Milos Jonic (Paris, 1916–Caracas, 1999) was born in Paris because of family circumstances:[64] His father was staying in this city[65]. He was an artist linked to Will Grohmann (Bautzen, Saxony, 1887–Berlin, 1968), a central critic of the twentieth century, extraordinary connoisseur of the art of our time, and defender of abstraction, a lyricist, and defender of the work of Klee and Kandinsky[66], and emergent art, especially in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century. For him, Jonic’s endeavor was the consequence of work performed with absolute and admirable independence[67].   He was a cornelian artist of boxes, from the same neighborhood in Queens, but Jonic did not seem to offer space to the melancholy of frequently looking back at the neighbor from Utopia Parkway. There is something in Jonic that equates him to a chronicle of time, a translucent capsule, on occasion, there are boxes that open other capsules, into which Jonic buries studio life and reality, generally with the appearance of looking out, a sense of entropy, and looking inward, is reiterated, sometimes other spherical capsules, inside others, seem to transform into glasses.  The Cloisonné of today has passed.  Today, confined, we read the personalized prints, or fragments, that come and go—the poems that appeared and reappear, the fragments of their catalogues.   Jonic splits all of these and encloses them once again in capsules with the air of new artwork; boxes of doubt, for the scriptural fragments enclosed are frequently questions, interrogations about the artist, seemingly amplifying the question in confinement.  The elements of these boxes are submitted to movement, with their unadhered content, which spins. Said play, within, until it acquires yet another identity. It is a wreckage of paintings in movement, tempted to praise that which will disappear. “Sometimes, you have to destroy/to become free/to begin again(…)”, one of the enclosed fragments will pray, repeatedly, in several of its boxes of shreds of paper and wood shavings.

Pedro Sandoval (Ciudad Bolívar, 1966) conceived artwork in which space could be harmonic and dynamic simultaneously, as a kleeian dreaming of lines, from the possibilities of tempting the invisible, in search of formal tentatives, an exercise in thinking in the air capable of containing the subject, as well as tempting its dematerialization in a vibrational monochrome. On occasion, his paintings seem populated by spaces in which the light vibrates, the world is reflected in mercury air, suspended places in the atmosphere.    The omnivorous creator was able to move between geometric abstraction and fields of color, geometry, and gestures, his homage to CyTwombly was not in vain.

Javier Riera (Aviles, 1964) has seemed to question visible appearances in the world, demonstrating the way in which there are times when things may dazzle more, or remain dark, from a strange voice of those forms which seem to emerge in his artwork, as points in a restless story.    Simulation in infinite space: each of the intriguing spaces inhabited by forms.  Agitated silence as in photographs of one of their interventions into the landscape, “FLP 1” (2016), in which the light forms encountered the universe of the forest, the hermetic burn of stillness that is a precursor to vibration of that previously unseen as itself, serene, which recalls our artist a precedent and mysterious encounter, a supernatural finding that makes it compatible with the search for that which, until now, was unknown to knowledge, which seems embargoed from an alchemical search, an interior journey that summons its compositions in a total air, memory of ardor, perplex territory populated by the appearance of forms.

Elevation of the paradoxes of visibility, sparks from whence emerge forms as errant forces. Tempting the elevation of the forms leads to concern about the diverse possibilities of the creation. Creation supposes, many times, negation.    This leads to the conceiver, by way of fragmented visibility instruments, to archive visions or articulations of space in differed times.   The resonant awareness refers to the artist’s space and time as an inseparable condition.



[1] NABOKOV, Vladimir. Ada o el ardor. Barcelona: Anagrama.

[2] Recovered from: DUCHAMP, Marcel.  Afectuosamente, Marcel.  Correspondencia de Marcel Duchamp.  Murcia: CENDEAED-Region of Murcia, 2014, p. 272.

[3] PALAZUELO, Pablo-FERNÁNDEZ-BRASO.  En el taller.  Madrid: “Guadalimar”, Año VI, Nº 56, I/1981, p. 35-42.  Reproduced in: “En el taller-El espacio de Palazuelo”, Madrid: Editions of Rayuela, 1983, p. 80-87.

[4] THARRATS, Juan José. Artistas de hoy.  Pablo Palazuelo, Barcelona: “Revista”, XII/1958. “Palazuelo is an authentic example of an introverted imagination. His paintings, created unhurriedly—somewhere we have read that he produces no more than half a dozen paintings per year—tend to be accompanied by titles that serenely invite meditation (…)”.: DE LA TORRE, Alfonso.  Pablo Palazuelo.  La imaginación introvertida.  In “Palazuelo. Paris, 13 rue Saint-Jacques (1948-1968)”. Madrid-Alzuza: Fundación Juan March and Fundación Museo Jorge Oteiza, 2009-2010.

[5] However, in many of his writings, ludus abounds, together with certain irrationality.

[6] TORRES-GARCÍA. Joaquín.  Con respecto a una futura creación literaria.  Buenos Aires: “Arturo”, nº 1, Verano 1944, p. 36.

[7] This would be stated in the second MADÍ issue (X/1948).

[8] Ibid.

[9] In Ibid., reference to Max Bill, Herbin, Kupka, and Magnelli, also reproduced in the third issue (X/1949), among others, they will remain in the other issues, which would seem to be a Parisian influence.

[10] Here I refer to Rhod Rothfuss’ article, “Un aspecto de la superposiciónin MADÍ’s second issue (X/1948).

[11] The fanciful smith also saw him thus: “Berned is guided by an incessant exploration of new artistic territories”.  CHIRINO, Martín. Arturo Berned.  Madrid: Estudio Lamela, 2018.

[12] “The objective of my work is that same that any artist seeks: to move the soul”. FERNÁNDEZ-BRASO, Manuel-BERNED, Arturo.  De arquitecto a escultorConversaciones.  Madrid: Galería Fernández-Braso, October of 2019. This is mentioned by the artist in: BERNED, Arturo-PITA, Elena. Entrevista. Valencia: IVAM, 2012, p. 188: “sculpture emerges as an internal need: it appeared, and I simply did not repress it (…)”.   Recovered from: DE LA TORRE, Alfonso. Arturo Berned. Poesía y sed de las formas.  In “Arturo Berned. Procesos y principios”.  Madrid: Galería Fernández-Braso, 2019.

[13] “(…) A special poetry, as an intimist”.  BONET, Juan Manuel.  Apasionado por el rigor (Divagaciones sobre las esculturas recientes de Arturo Berned).  Madrid, 2011, p. 17.

[14] DE LA TORRE, Alfonso. Interactive-Realités Nouvelles-Tesoros Comunes [Reflexiones en torno a la Exposición Interactive]. In “Interactive. Prácticas digitales contemporáneas”. Madrid-Caracas: Galería Odalys: 2016, p. 5-21.

[15] Sempere incorporated from the onset the sculpture “Chronos X” (1971), by this author, acquired in 1977 at the Galerie Denise René, to the then “Colección Arte Siglo XX” (Alicante).  Currently exhibited at the MACA, Alicante.

[16] Galería Odalys, Nicolas Schöffer, Madrid, 12 November 2015-7 January 2016.

[17] Galería Odalys, Otero MONUMENTAL: dibujos | maquetas | esculturas, Madrid, 22 February-25 April (June) 2020.

[18] I am citing one of Otero’s works of art, seen in the mentioned exhibition: “Rastreadora de luz” (1972).

[19] His artwork, “Cubo de corazón vibrante” (1972), was also exhibited.

[20] I mention Otero’s, “Fuegos circulares” (1972) and “Semilla Circular” (1987), specifically.

[21] ARP, Jean.  Sophie Taeuber-Arp.  In “Jours effeuillés, poèmes, essis, souvenirs, 1920-1965”.  Paris: Gallimard, 1966, p. 291. DE LA TORRE, Alfonso.  Carmen Otero: serena, luminosa, verdadera, precisa, clara, incorruptible.  Guadalajara: Museo Sobrino, 2019.

[22] “The sculptures have been created with hardwood, such as walnut, chestnut, cedar, iroko, birch, linden, pine, etc. Wood is a living material that possesses a series of intrinsic characteristics, such as color, striation, hardness, weight, texture, and warmth that confers certain physical and plastic qualities that intensify with the color of polychromes. Chromatic play in which I value color contrasts and tonal harmonization in terms of the wood with which I am working (if it is light, dark, porous, or compact). This choice normally corresponds to a previous design, but many times, is affected by my mood at the time”. Conversation with the artist, 3/VI/2019.

[23] If before we cited Otero’s exhibition in this gallery, it is now pertinent to mention: Galería Odalys, GEGO.  La línea es el recorrido, Madrid, 13 July-30 September 2019.

[24] NABOKOV, Vladimir.  Gloria (1971).  Barcelona: Anagrama, 2017, p. 86-87.

[25] DE LA TORRE, Alfonso. Gerardo Rueda. No estando al día.  Madrid: Ediciones del Umbral. Colección Invisible nº 3.  Madrid, 2017.

[26] We include the work of Rosa Brun in a project entitled, “No hay arte sin obsesión”.  (Fundación Antonio Pérez, Cuenca, 9 March-27 May 2007 and Fundación Caixa Galicia, Ferrol, 22 June-9 September 2007).

[27] Cruz Novillo created this artwork cycle to be exhibited in the Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, in Madrid, for the exhibition entitled “Zurbarán: una nueva mirada” (2015).

[28] DE LA TORRE, Alfonso.  José María Cruz Novillo. Geometría y derivas.  Madrid: Galería Fernando Pradilla-Stand “El Mundo”, ARCOmadrid 2020.

[29] Expected as January 2021.

[30] In the words of the artist: “A work of art must be restless and dynamic, it must change and advance.  It must also be fresh.  Restlessness is fundamental”. MORÓN, Jessica.  Jesús Matheus en cuatro costados.  Caracas: “El Universal”, 14/V/2013.

[31] “(…) an autoreferential language, supported by his own norms: in the reasoning and logic of art”. BARRIOS, Guillermo. El evangelio según Matheus. Boston: artist’s website, 2008.

[32] “In recent years I construct; I have found myself constructing: I am a constructor that starts and stops to join forms, things, and parts. Drawing, painting, and sculpture: constructed paintings, flat sculptures, sculptures of a painter alluding to a characteristic upward graphic revealed in continuous totality”. MATHEUS, Jesús. Manifiesto en dos tiempos. In “Neoglifos”. Caracas: Sala TAC, 2015.

[33] MATHEUS, Jesús. Introducción. In “The white studio”.  Miami: Ranivilu Art Gallery, 2018.

[34] JABÈS, Edmond. Cited by BENHAMOU, Maurice. In the Distances catalogue. Paris: Hospital de la Salpêtrière-Chapelle de Saint-Louis, 1981.

[35] DE LA TORRE, Alfonso.  Robert Ferrer.  Consume el fuego las imágenes.  Madrid: Galería Espacio Valverde, 2018.

[36] KLEE, Paul. Paul Klee, Cours du Bauhaus-Weimar 1921-1922. Contributions à la théorie de la forme picturale.  Paris: Éditions des Musées de Strasbourg-Editions Hazan, 2004. “Cours VII” 27/II/1922, note 94, in the cited edition, on p. 127. The quote is: “Comme une étincelle venue d’où on ne sait où”, which translates as: “Like a radiance emanating from a place unknown”.

[37] Let us consider here the year 1972, his first presence in the collective Exposición Nacional de Arte Contemporáneo, at the Museo San Pio V in Valencia.

[38] NERVAL, Gérard de.  Aurélia ou Le Rêve et la vie (1855).  Paris: Gallimard, Folio Classique, 2005.

[39] Title of one of his 2013 works of art.

[40] “I even dreamt about it. I dream. I dream of myself together with my model”, KLEE, Paul. Diarios 1898/1918 (Edited and prologued by Felix Klee).  Mexico: Biblioteca Era, Serie Mayor, 1970, p. 153.

[41] Ibid., p. 148.

[42] Letter to this author, soon to be published in “Puerto Metafísico”. Courtesy of Emilio Gañán and Galería Fernando Pradilla, Madrid (fragment).

[43] DIXON, Mónica. Cielo-Tierra.  Toledo: Museo de Santa Cruz, p. 68.

[44] Ibid. p. 80.

[45] Galería Odalys, El trabajo de lo visible, Madrid, 20 November 2014–17 January 2015

[46] Waldo Balart, in the catalogue of his exhibition at la Galería Edurne, Madrid, X/1994.

[47] “I felt attracted to artwork that had been created with the Bauhaus spirit”. SOTO, Jesús Rafael. Excerpts from an interview with Soto. In Soto: A Retrospective Exhibition, cat. expo., New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1974, p. 26-27.

[48] After presenting his Muro panorámico vibrante, in 1966, at the XXXIII Venice Biennale, in the Venezuela pavilion.

[49] “Soto reasons in the scale of the time, sees the big picture, does not allow himself to be enclosed within the object, like many modernists. (…) The gigantic work of Soto, Penetrable, as well as Extensión verde , which is twelve meters long, or  Ambientación azul, which is sixteen meters long, should cause Parisian exhibition organizers to reconsider. Worldwide, art aspires to surpass the limits dictated by the habits of the bourgeois”.  DUPARC, Christiane.  Le Descartes du cinétisme.  Paris: “Le Nouvel Observateur”, n° 244, 14/VII/1969, p. 36.

[50] FRANÇA, Jose-Augusto. Millares or the white victory.  New York: Pierre Matisse Gallery, 1974 (Text in the exhibition catalogue at Pierre Matisse Gallery, Homage to Manolo Millares, his last paintings, New York, 21 May-7 June 1974).

[51] Term from: CHÁVARRI, Raúl. Gerardo Rueda.  Madrid: “Bellas Artes’71”, V-VI/1971.

[52] The quote about Still from AUPING, Michael. “Clyfford Still y Nueva York: el Proyecto Buffalo”. In: Clyfford Still. Madrid: Museo Nacional Reina Sofía, 1992, p. 38.

[53] Galerie Denise René, Le mouvement, Paris, 6-30 April 1955 (Agam, Bury, Calder, Marcel Duchamp, Jacobsen, Soto, Tinguely, and Vasarely).

[54] Galerie Latinoamerica, Demarco, García Miranda, García Rossi, Le Parc, Morellet, Moyano, Servanes, Sobrino, Stein, Yvaral,Brussels, May 27 – June 30, 1960.   Excluding Vera Molnár, these artists would sign the “Acte de Fondation” of the Centre de Recherche de l’Art Visuel in July of that year.    In January 1961, on the occasion of their exhibit in the Museum of Art in Stockholm,  García Miranda, García Rossi, Le Parc, Morellet, Moyano, Sobrino, Stein, and Yvaral. would confirm the final composition.

[55] Conversation between Tomás García Asensio and this author.

[56] DE LA TORRE, Alfonso. Nicholson y Rueda.  Frente al mar [Ben Nicholson-Gerardo Rueda.  Confluencias]. Madrid: Galería Leandro Navarro, 2013.

[57] Took place between February 9 and March 6 of 1971, the catalogue contained a text from 1960 from Víctor Vasarely, and the entirety of the paintings were white, which produced a significant impact on the public and critics alike.

[58] FLÓREZ, Elena. Gerardo Rueda. Madrid: “El Alcázar”, 27/II/1971.

[59] CHÁVARRI, Raúl. Gerardo Rueda.  Op. cit.

[60] Antonio Bonet qualified this sample of “one of the most important artistic happenings of the year (…).   On his artwork a new and unedited ‘Tratado de sombras’ could be written, which being a debtor of the method of those which until few years past were used for study in schools of architecture, are a surprising and unsuspected version of the bodies assembled thereby”.    BONET CORREA, Antonio. Rueda. Sevilla: “El Correo de Andalucía”, 27/III/1971.

[61] SÁNCHEZ CAMARGO, Manuel. De Gerardo Rueda, abstracto, a Zubiaurre y Guijarro, figurativos.  Madrid: “Pueblo”, 12/II/1958

[62] CIRLOT, Juan-Eduardo. La pintura de Gerardo Rueda. Madrid: “Artes”, nº 26, VIII/1960.

[63] “Leur valeur spirituelle se montre avant leurs qualités picturales”. SAUVENIER, Albert C. Gerardo Rueda. Bologna: Galleria d’arte 2000, 1964.

[64] Jonic declared having resided the first four years of his childhood in Paris, following the death of his mother. Archives courtesy of: Dr. Caroline Sternberg. Archiv. Akademie der Bildenden Künste München. X/2016.  Also: Conversations between this author and his daughter, Daniza Jonic (IX/2016).

[65] Velibor Jonic, Yugoslavian official (Serbia).

[66] Wassily Kandinsky, “Komposition N.º 350 (Hommage à Grohmann)”, (1926). Óleo sobre lienzo, 35.3 x 24.1 cm.  Staatsgalerie Stuttgart (3091).

[67] Haus der Städtischen Kunstsammlungen, Südamerikanische Malerei der Gegenwart, Bonn, 30 June-1 September 1963. In 1955 Grohmann hhad been appointed Honorary member of the International Council of the Museum of Modern Art, New York.    The quote that we transcribed from Grohmann, in the Ibid. catalogue, was: “Sher viel ist jedoch mit solchen Hinweisen nicht gewonnen, ein Maler wie Milos Jonic (Venezuela) ist von bewundernswerter Selbständigkeit (…)”.  The independence that Grohnmann discussed had to do, as inferred from the reading of the entire text, with the link that many artists had with l’École de Paris, also citing, for example, the “debt” of some of them with Nicolas de Stäel.  The exhibition, according to Godula Buchholz, was opened first in Bogota, later in the Sala de la Fundación Eugenio Mendoza in Caracas, and, in 1963, in Germany.  In addition to its showing in Bonn: Akademie der Künste, Berlin, 1963; Staatliche Kunsthalle Baden-Baden, March 1964 and Kunst und Kunstgewerbeverein Pforzheim Reuchlinhaus, April 1964. Correspondence between this author and Godula Buchholz (23/IX/2016).